Calculate the current in the circuit of Fig. 4.69. What value of input voltage is necessary to make equal to 5 amps?
Tuesday, March 22, 2016 Mass Media Week 11 Public Relations and Framing the Message - What is public relations • The professional maintenance of a favorable public image by a company or other organization or a famous person - 1860s: Railroads bribed reporters for positive stories - 1880s: P.T. Barnum • He knew that to get people to come to his circus, he had to go over the top • Without promotion, something terrible happens…nothing! • Nobody ever lost a dollar by underestimating the taste of the American public - Early 1900s: Ivy Lee, “Tell the truth.” Modern PR is born • With the birth of public relations came the birth of branding • Very selective with the information he wanted to reveal - 1920s: Edward Bernays, American Tobacco Company • He ironically forbade his wife to smoke although he promoted all other women to smoke If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, it is now possible • to control and regiment the masses according to our will without them knowing it - 1940s: P.R. as propaganda - 1948: PRSA is born • Created ethics and standards • If you are a pr practitioner, you must pass a test - 1965: Ralph Nader: “Unsafe at Any Speed,” consumer movement is born • About the American auto industry - 1982: Tylenol scare, tamper-resistant packaging is born • Someone had laced the tylenol with cyanide 1 Tuesday, March 22, 2016 - 1989: Exxon Valdez accident, initial denials, slow response • Lacked transparency and the public hated them for it • Some people do not buy Exxon gas to this day - 1990s: Restoring Nixon’s image, Hill & Knowlton - 2005: FCC says broadcasters must disclose source of VNRs (Video News Releases) - 2010: BP oil spill - 2015: Chipotle - 2015: VW diesel scandal 2 Thursday, March 24, 2016 Public Relations Continued - Beyonce • Destiny’s child • Goldmember - Subversive • Dangerously in Love • B’day • Dreamgirls • I am.. Sasha Fierce Cadillac Records • • Sells L’Oreal, Pepsi, and Tommy Hilﬁger • Has own clothing line and perfume • 2013 controversy, then ﬁxed • Public Service PR History - 1840s: PR starts with P.T. Barnum - 1880s: Railroads bribe reporters for positive new stories - 1914: Ive Lee (father of PR) transforms Rockefeller from stingy curmudgeon to child- loving philanthropist - 1922: Public Opinion, Walter Lippman, ﬁrst book on PR: How slogans, stereotypes and media messages can shape public opinion - 1923: Edward Bernay teaches ﬁrst PR course at New York University - 1948: Public Relations Society of America starts (internal watchdog group to improve PR standing in industry) - 1965: Unsafe at Any Speed, Ralph Nader. Blasts GM and forces new PR customer relation strategies - 1982: Tylenol laced with cyanide and PR saved Johnson & Johnson 3 Thursday, March 24, 2016 - 2005: FCC mandates that source of Video News Releases must be clearly disclosed - 2010: BP Oil Spill Facts - More than 7,000 PR ﬁrms are in existence today - In past decade, PR is growing in universities - 2014: Public Relations Student Society of America had more than 11,000 members - Propaganda: communication strategically placed, either as advertising or as publicity to gain public support for a special issue, program or policy, such as a nation’s war effort - Press Releases: announcements written in the style of news reports that give new information about an individual, a company, or an organization, and pitch a story idea to the news media - Video News Releases: 30-90 second visual press releases designed to mimic the style of a broadcast news report. - Public Service Announcement: 15-30 second audio or video report that promotes government programs, educational projects, volunteer agencies, or social reform - Pseudo Event: any circumstance created for the sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media - Lobbying: the process of attempting to inﬂuence lawmakers to support and vote for an organization’s industry’s best interests - PRSA • Advocacy: serve public interest, voice in a marketplace of ideas • Honesty: highest standards of accuracy and truth • Expertise: acquire specialized knowledge and experience, credibility and relationships • Independence: objective counsel, accountability for actions • Loyalty: faithful to those represented while serving public interest • Fairness: with clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, the media and the general public 4