Find the Norton equivalent at terminals of the circuit in Fig. 4.119.
REST 102 3/22/16 and 3/24/16 Judaism Text “Bible” – from Greek ta biblia “the books” Hebrew bible: collection of books written in Hebrew (Jewish text) Also Hebrew scriptures = Torah, refers to the first 5 books of Hebrew bible Divisions of Hebrew bible: three sections, 24 books Torah (law) – Pentateuch – first 5 books Nevi’im (prophets) Ketuvim (writings) TaNaK (Tanakh): another name for Hebrew bible Septuagint: Greek translation of the Hebrew bible Other Genres in the Hebrew Bible Wisdom literature – Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job How to live a good life/pragmatic advice Prophetic literature Prophet – spokesperson; speaks on behalf of a deity – Relaying god’s message about a current situation Apocalyptic Literature Daniel 712: coded language, angelic massagers Concepts of God Why do bad things happen to good people Theodicy: an explanation of suffering in light of God’s justice and benevolence Retribution theology: people suffer because of their disobedience [prophetic lit.] Job [wisdom lit]: people suffer because god has a purpose which humans neither know/understand Disinterested Righteousness: doing the right thing regardless of the outcome and regardless of your ability to understand it 586 BCE – destruction of the first temple by Babylonians 515 BCE – second temple build under Cyrus the Great (Persia) 167 BCE – Maccabean Revolt 70 CE – destruction of the second temple by Romans 1 What was Judaism like up until the destruction of the second temple, and how did it adapt afterwards Types of Judaism in 2 Temple period Pharisees Written and oral Torah – tradition of teachings and interpretations of the Torah Open to anyone studying written and oral Torah Sadducees Only written Torah Priestly upper class that presided over the temple in Jerusalem Hereditary line of high priests who presided at temple Essenes Written Torah and texts about their own communities: the Dead Sea Scrolls Communal living in the Desert Christianity: messianic movement, outgrowth of second temple Judaism Messiah not ultimate goal or focus for all Jews, at all points of history Transitional Period Second temple destroyed in 70 CE What does Judaism become without the Temple – Emergence of Rabbinic Judaism, Christianity develops, Pharisees flourish Rabbinic Beginnings Council of Yavneh o Gathering of Jewish leaders to discuss future of Judaism, post temple. Tradition and school of Rabbis o Rabbi (teacher) – at Yeshiva (sitting session) o Not hereditary – student teacher relationship Emphasis on religious rituals, rues for governing community – following commandments in a new way New central role for Synagogues Temple vs. Synagogue Temple functions 1 temple, in Jerusalem – housing place for God on earth Preform sacrifice Priestly Class 2 Synagogue functions “gathering together” Many synagogues Meeting place for Torah Study and Prayer Mishnah and Talmuds Oral Torah: Moses – Mishnah Mishnah: written interpretations of the Hebrew bible Talmuds: interpretations of the Mishnah two collections, helps understand the Mishnah and the Hebrew bible Medieval Jewish Philosophy and Theology Saadia: born in Egypt then moved to Babylonia Defending rabbinic Judaism to other Jews Judaism is only divinely revealed truth; revelation in harmony Yehuda HaLevi: Spain, The Kurzai: Judaism superior to philosophy because of truth revelation Maimonides: Spain to North Africa; Guide to the Perplexed – Addresses God’s sovereignty and free will, God gave humans rationality and morality which helps them live a good life under God’s guidance Jewish Persecution Mysticism became popular during times of persecution in medieval and early modern periods – possibly due to mysticism referring to people having a hand in creating goodness in the world Persecution Spain to Istanbul Reconquista and Spanish Inquisition (1478) – forced conversions to Christianity; “cryptojews” 1492: Jews were officially expelled from Spain 15551870: Jewish ghetto in Rome Influx of Jeth to Rome Pope Paul 4 – set up ghetto and rules for Jews living in Rome Rules including clothing, living quarters, curfew, restricted trades, couldn’t fraternize with Christians, only allowed 1 synagogue Jewish Traditions Practices 3 Sabbath – Sunset of Friday to sunset of Sunday; time to spend with family, cannot work Prayer – Shema – Deut 6:49, recited at Synagogue Clothing Teffillin – box with straps used with prayer, reminder of commandments Kippah – yamikah, small hats Tallith – prayer shawl Dietary Laws Kinds of animals Preparation of food Combination of foods Kosher – “fit of lean” can refer to foods and how foods are handled and processed Purities and impurities – you should be pure because God is pure Bar and BatMitzvahs “Son or daughter of the commandment” becomes full members of the religious community Ceremony: read from Torah scroll in Hebrew at the synagogue in front of congregation Preparation – Jewish Sunday school, teach Jewish children about Jewish history and about the Torah Marriage and Divorce Religious ceremony; covenant between spouses Civil divorce separate from a Get (bill of divorce) Get necessary in order to be seen as divorced in the eyes of the religious community – divorce decree husband to wife, not required among reform Judaism Modern Judaism in the US Moses Mendelssohn (1886) Pittsburgh Platform (1885) – adapt to times and culture through rational procedure Conservative Judaism Historical justification needed for reformation Rational reasoning and historical precedent/tradition 4 Kippah optional but common during religious services Men and women pray together Dietary laws – traditional with eye for modern times Orthodox Judaism Most concerned with preserving Jewish tradition “Way of Torah vs. way of land” Concern about assimilation Some opposed to the establishment of modern Israel 5