For the circuit shown in Fig. 4.131, determine the relationship between and I0 V .
Birds Week 3 Songbirds part I.wls, Nightjars, Woodpeckers, and Structures: • Rictal Bristles: • corners of bill feathers at • Help in feeding, sensory • Insectivores! Structures: • Hyoid apparatus •structure that wraps around the skull • Extension of tongue • Found in woodpeckers and hummingbirds Foot types • Zygodactyl nd rd • 2 and 3 toes point forward • 4 toe and hallux point back • Pamprodactyl • 1 toe and hallux can pivot from front to back Foot types • Syndactyl • 2ndand 3 toes fused • Anisodactyl • Hallux points back • Other three toes point forward T erms • Sallying • Foraging method • Sitting on a perch, leave to catch an percht, return to • Crepuscular • Nocturnal Order Columbiformes • Family Columbidae • Doves and pigeons Rock Pigeon Columba livia • Plump body with bobbing head • Plumage highly variable • Fleshy cere at base of bill • Multicolored • Not native to US ROPI • Crop milk ROPI • Domesticated more than 5000 years ago • Used for message delivery in WWI and WWII • London pollution monitoring Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura • Slender body • Long tail tapers to point • In flight: white tips on outer tail feathers MODO • Readily visible; often foraging on ground for seeds • Popular migratory game bird • Dove = symbol of peace Order Cuculiformes • Family Cuculidae • Cuckoos, roadrunner Y ellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus • Long tail • Brown above, white below • Lower mandible is yellow (bi-colored) • Zygodactyl foot Order Strigiformes • Family Strigidae • Owls Eastern Screech-Owl Megascops asio • Small body • Ear tufts prominent when raised • Upper breast strongly barred black streaks • Two color phases: red and gray • Cavity nesters • Diet: large insects and mice Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus • Large-bodied owl with broad wings • Prominent tufts on head • Heavily barred below • White throat, yellow eyes • Diet of mammals up to rabbit-sized Barred Owl Strix varia • Horizontal barring on upper breast with vertical streaking below • Dark eyes • Females larger than males Order Caprimulgiformes • Family Caprimulgidae • Nighthawks, whip-poor-wills, poorwills • Referred to as nightjars or goatsuckers Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor • Very wide mouth • Wings long and pointed • White bars across primaries • Rictal bristles • Males: white throat, white tail band • Females: tan throat, no tail band Order Apodiformes • Family Apodidae • Swifts, swallows Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica • Small, dark, cigar- shaped body • Short, stubby tail • Wings long and pointed CHSW • Spends most time in flight • Cannot perch, clings to vertical walls • Pamprodactyl feet Order Apodiformes • Family Trochilidae • Hummingbirds Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris • Golden-green above • Usually green crown • Males: red throat, whitish below • Females: shorter bill, more gray below RTHU • Feeds on nectar or small insects/spiders in flower • Hovers; wings beat 53 times per second • Build nests from small, downy plant materials and spider silk Order Coraciiformes • Family Alcedinidae • Kingfishers Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon • Stocky body with large head • Large bill • Ragged crest • Gray-blue breast band • Syndactyl foot BEKI • Male: no orange marks • Female: orange belly and flanks BEKI • Nests by burrowing into banks Order Piciformes • Family Picidae • Woodpeckers and relatives Piciformes, Picidae Tongue adaptations • Woodpeckers Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus • Black and white barred back • Red head stripe • Faint wash of “red” on belly • Populations expanding northwards RBWO • Male: red crown and nape • Female: red nape only Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens • Smallest woodpecker • Very short bill • White patch on back • Males have red patch on head; larger Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus • Barring on back • Spots on underparts • Black bib • White rump • Wings and tail colorful • Eastern populations: yellow shafts • Western populations: red shafts NOFL—yellow shafted NOFL—red shafted Order Passeriformes • 5700 species worldwide • Perching birds, songbirds • Large brains, superior learning and vocalization Family Tyrannidae • Tyrant flycatchers • 400 species • Insectivorous • Forage by sallying • Mostly plain-colored, olive birds • Triangular, slightly hooked bill with strong rictal bristles Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens • Dark above • Light colored belly • Pale wing bars • No eye ring • Dark backs Empidonax flycatchers Empidonax spp. • Eye ring • Conspicuous wing bars • Olive back • Smaller and shorter- winged than EAWP Eastern Kingbird T yrannus tyrannus • Black head • Slate gray back • White band at tip of tail • Sometimes orange-red crown patch • Note the rictal bristles! Order Passeriformes • Family Laniidae • Shrikes Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus • Black mask over eye • Slate gray head and back • Hooked bill LOSH • Impale food for storage, mate attraction