A transducer is modeled with a current source and a parallel resistance The current at the terminals of the source is measured to be 9.975 mA when an ammeter with an internal resistance of is used. (a) If adding a 2-k resistor across the source terminals causes the ammeter reading to fall to 9.876 mA, calculate and (b) What will the ammeter reading be if the resistance between the source terminals is changed to 4 k ?
Sociology 242: Midterm 1 Study Guide Spring 2016 Professor McGene Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Term Demographics – Page 1 Mortality - Page 2 Fertility - Page 4 Migration - Page 6 Population - Page 7 Urbanization – Page 8 Demographics 1. Demographic Change a. Sociology Imagination: i. C. Wright Mills => Context => “Pay attention of personal biography and personal context. ii. Three Main Questions to Ask: 1. What is the nature of the social structure (What kind of society is present 2. What is the position of that social structure relative to other structures and how does that affect its leverage 3. Who has the power (Social, Economical, Resource Power) iii. Belief in Meritocracy 2. What is Demography (Size change, composition, spatial distribution) a. Population Size, Location, Density b. Population Growth/Decline c. Population Composition (Population Characteristics) d. Characteristic of Population (Education) e. Structure of Population (Age/ Sex) 3. Population is not geographically bound 4. Major Demographic Change => Fertility, Mortality, Migration 5. Population Composition, Shifts to services and needs 6. Ability and Performance (For Demographic Events) a. Ex: Childbirth b. Ability v.s. Performance i. Ability: Fecundity (Sterility) 1 ii. Performance (Absent/Present) : Fertility (Childbirth/Childlessness) 7. Census: United Nations a. Collection, Compilation, Publishing (Different Kinds of Data) b. Demographic, Economic, Social Nature (Target) c. Data pertains to a specific demographic (Defined Territory) 8. There should be Universality a. Dejour: Normal Residency (Native) b. Defactor: Current Residency (Inclusive of everyone there in the territory at the time. 9. Simultaneous Timeline (Coverage Error) a. Most Problematic Error i. Overcount vs Undercount ii. Net Coverage Error = (Overcount- UnderCount) b. We can calculate the undercount by looking at (births, deaths, migration numbers) 10. Content Error a. Error in the data that is received b. Issue with Still Births and Fetal Deaths: i. Still Births- 30 Weeks Before -> Fetal Death ii. Fetal Death-> Not included in infant mortality 11. Population Surveys: a. Annual Survey (American Comunity Survey i. Detailed Demographic Survey (3 million Surveys ii. 3 million random people are asked random representing individual households. b. Random Sample Eliminates Bias: i. Everyone is capable of being selected ii. Random equal chance of representating the population c. Current Population Survey i. Forcuses on labor force participation Mortality: Crude Death Rate: (# of people who die annually / # of people alive in that year ) x 1000 Risk of Death varies by age, proportionate to population. A population with higher age groups will have a higher crude death rate. Age/Sex Specific Death Rate: 2 Total population divided into specific age groups. Age Adjusted Death Rate: Standardized Age Specific Death Rates Adjusting the rates/ Weighing the death rate Taking into account the impact of age on population and what proportion does each age group take up in comparison to the whole population. Infant Mortality: Death before 1 Year (only includes babies who are alive outside the womb) Perinatal Mortality- Death prior to 28th day Fetal Death- When the baby never makes it outside the womb Maternal Mortality Rate- Any death that occurs to a woman due to childbirth related problems x100,000 Lifespan: Capacity for how long a human body can live. Life Expectancy: statistical average number of years people can expect to live. Latino Paradox: Most latinos from Mexico Age Specific Death Rate x Proportion to U.S. = Standardized CDR Causes of Death is different according to Country Discovery of Germ Theory by Pasteur was one of the most pinnacle discoveries of the 19th century. 1. Leading Causes of Death: a. Know Differences of Death between Low-Income vs High-Income Countries i. Low Income Countries 1. Infectious Diseases 2. Younger People at Risk ii. High Income 1. Kills Older People 2. Degenerative Disease (Heart, stroke, diabetes) b. Suicide: i. 1 Million suicide annually around the world ii. 20 million would attempt suicide iii. Men have higher suicide rates. c. Homicide: i. Usually Men (VIctim and Perpetrator, age 10-24) ii. per 100,000 White - 2.9/ 1000 deaths through homicide 3 iii. per 100,000 Black - 59 / 1000 deaths through homicide 1. This has larger impact because of population proportionality: where the black community has a small population in comparison. This affects their population even more. d. Accidental Deaths e. #1 Cause of Death- Tobacco f. #2 Cause of Death - Diet/ Poor Physical Health g. #3 Cause of Death - Alcohol Abuse h. Gender Paradox: Men die younger even though they make more* Fertility: Why is harder to measure than mortality 1. Everyone will die at some point 2. Fertility is giving birth to a child (Two people involved > Baby + Mother) 3. Age Limitation (15-49) , Mortality can happen anytime. Fertility: - Very socially influenced - Number of babies depends on society - There is a preference, unlike mortality - People die once, but women can give birth multiple times. Definition: - Fertility: Is the actual behavior of giving childbirth - Fecundity: Is the potential to give birth - Childlessness: Absence of Childbirth - Sterility: Inability of Childbirth Reproduction is in terms of Demography > Number of girl Births Fertility Rates 1.) Crude Death Rate (CDR) a.) Number of Births/ Number of Midyear Population x 100 b.) Includes Number of men who cannot give birth 2.) General Fertility Rate (GFR) a.) Births/ Midyear population x 1000 3.) Age Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) 4 a.) a = (Women, age x to x+n) b.) (Births a/ midyear population of a ) x 100 4.) Total Fertility Rate (A projection Rate) a.) TFR = Sum (nASFRx)i b.) Taking all of the ASFR and multiplying i(5 year internal growth) c.) TFR > expected average number of children as calculated annually per woman in her lifetime. d.) This measures all babies regardless of gender Biological Potential > 16 childbirths on average per woman in her lifetime. Pre-Industrial Era > Children are Assets Industrial Era > Children are Economic Burden Reproduction Rates: Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) TFR x ( Female Births/ Births) Net Reproduction Rate (NRR) Sum (ASFR x (Number of women in age group / 500,000) ) Takes into account mortality rates > smaller than Gross Number and can be different depending on country *** If there is a high difference between GRR and NRR, it means female mortality rates are high. Many Factors as to why some cultures have high fertility rates: - Social obligation - Social standards - Work/household divide - Developed/ Developing/ or Undeveloped Country Trend of Developing Countries: High Mortality / High Fertility Lower Mortality / High Fertility Lower Mortality/ Lower Fertility Developed countries-> more control over fertility (Fertility Transition) Four Fertility Theories 1. Coale’s Precondition For Fertility Rate Theory: a. Have to have the belief that fertility can be managed and controlled b. Willing to control fertility c. Means to control fertility 5 2. Becker’s New-Home Economics: a. Opportunity Costs (Consequence of High Fertility) b. More # of children > Lower educational achievement i. Women who have children earlier have higher opportunity costs ii. People who are on track to achieve college success but have children will have a higher opportunity cost 3. Innovation-Diffusion Model: a. Widespread Beliefs: from more advantageous to less advantageous people. b. Diffusion of ideas will be more or less rigid depending on country and culture (i.e. US is pretty fluid in terms of sharing ideas across classes, whereas countries like India have class segregation) Baby Boom 1960’s Analysis: -Demographic -Economic -Social-psychological Demographics: marriage rates skyrocketed because couples married at younger age. This was also because of cultural values (i.e. sexual activity only when married) - Change in Childbearing patterns > rebound of childlessness from 1920. - Less spacing per births/ increase in babies per woman. Economic: Incredible post-war economy - Small workforce, lots of jobs > able to have a “bread-maker family” - Labor Shortage/women forced out of factories - Government subsidies to help families Social Psychology: - good idea to have more kids (Religious View was very heavy) 4. Birth Fortune Theory: Relative Income = Earning Potential (EP) (Fortune) (Material Aspirations) Migration: Net migration is the difference measured by the number of people immigrating into the area and the number of people emmigrating out of the area The Net Migration rate is this difference over the midyear population *Mortality always drops First, then Fertility drops* Spacial Mobility: -Moving from residence to residence 6 1.) Local Movement: Changing from one residence to another, but still within the same community as before (Same country) 2.) Internal Migrant: moving within the same nationality, but different country a.) Ex: LA-> NYC 3.) International Migrant: a.) One country to another 4.) Migrant Flow/Stock: a.) Process of Moving > Flow b.) Result of Moving > Stock (Proportion of people who are not native at a certain point in time. 5.) Push/Pull Factors a.) Push has a stronger motivation factor b.) Implementation theory i.) A particular goal that can be obtained by moving (i.e. education, jobs, safety) c.) Most like age to migrate ~20 years old d.) Exceptions i.e. ~Puerto Rico 6.) In -Migrant (International Immigrants) 7.) Out-Migrants (Emigrants) 8.) Net Internal Migration = (In-Migrant) - (Out Migrant) 9.) Migration Interval => time interval 10.) Migration Stream > Migrants coming in from a common area of origin during a specific time interval 11.) Migration Permanence> Duration of the migration 12.) Commutation> related to the country migration because they are moving trans- country. This reduces the number of people who are migrants 13.) Net Migration Rate (In-Migration Rate - Out Migration Rate) 14.) People with Higher Education/Income can move further. Population Comprehension: Age/ Sex = > Population Comprehension “Social Construction of Age/Sex”” What it means to be old (Social standards for each time period) Adolescence was not a thing until the Industrial Revolution New way to make money to do certain types of work Early adulthood> Social constitution of age Social Stratification > Ranked Age separated by varying social ways Demographic = > Likelihood to be affected -physical restrictions 7 -social reasons/ restrictions -education/ income restrictions Age Transition (1-5 Age Range) > More Males at younger ages ~20 sex distribution evens out ~65+ More Females as males start dying faster A Young Population is defined to be 35% or more of 1-15 A Old Population is defined to be 12% or more 65+ 4 Major Ways to Measure Age: Dependency Ratio - Focusing on Dependent Ratios - Growth rate among different ages - When mortality falls, this has a simultaneous effort of the rate. Age of Wealthiest People - Most wealth come from inheritance Older americans are more likely to vote* For both men/women age group the population is increasing Feminization of Old Age: Since 1930, older people have had similar population Exponential growth is remarkable Dependency Rates Ratio: # of people under 15 + # of people over 64 / # of people 15-64 x 100 = Dependency Rates Ratio Demographic Dividend (Windows of Opportunity) -Period of 20-30 years where fertility rates drop due to a significant reduction in child/infant mortality rate. -When fertility rates drop rapidly -Base of population structure decrease -Burst of people into production -Lower dependency on child> Higher age dependency Urbanization: Urban Transition: - All migration is from rural > urban or urban > urban - Urban areas are more populated (over 50%) Measurement of Urban Area - How many people 8 - Size/Density of Area 4 Major Urbanization Factors: 1.) Internal Rural to Urban Migration: a.) Industrialization: i.) Profit Magnification/Rapid Growth/Pull Factors b.) “Discovery of New Lands” i.) Space to bring the industrialization ii.) Products being traded becomes available 2.) Natural Increase: a.) Shift where mortality starts to drop, and fertility remains, so that there is a push factor of higher population. b.) Urbanization: i.) Cities have lower mortality, and more people are born in the cities. 3.) International Migration 4.) Metropolization (Agglomeration) a.) Adjacent Centers that connect to the urban centers, grow to the broader areas b.) Shared Communities where we are connected. c.) Mashing urban centers together Problems with Urbanization: -Slums -Health Deprivation -Sanitation Levels/ Drinking Water Urban Crowding Problems/ Urban Sprawl -Suburbanization/Proliferation of suburbs (1950s) Gentrification: Displaces -> Smaller Business/ Affluent Business - Poverty moved to another place/ push factors - Filling up the service job in the gentrified areas - Water, droughts, finite energy, political conflict 9