Find vo in the op amp circuit of Fig. 5.92.
CLA 322 Monsters 3/31/16 Norse Monsters cont’d Dwarves: Remember that they first appear at the end of the 1 golden age, made by the Aesir in reaction to the giantesses who signaled the loss of golds. They chiefly mine gold for the Aesir and try to create objects for the gods that symbolize a pathway to take the gods out of the iron age and into the golden age (these objects remain powerless at, 1) warding off Ragnarok, 2)bringing on golden age) A similar ring to Odin’s Draupnir. This ring brings a curse on whoever possesses it Poem focuses on the curse of the gold of the dwarves and how it is stolen from them Loki appears as the driving force behind this curse. Starts with Loki on a journey with Odin and Haenir. Remember the two brothers were involved in animating the driftwood with a third brother. Here Loki acts as the third sibling, though it is not that simple Two dwarf brothers: Regin and Otter Otter in said shape, goes to the waterfall and fishes for salmon For no known reason Loki kills this dwarf otter (in said form) with a rock. Odin and his brother make a bag out of Otter’s skin. They come to the dwarf’s father’s (Hreidmar) house and foolishly accept his hospitality, and show him the bag (which he recognizes as his son. At this point Hreidmar and Regin, seize them and ransom their lives for the otter skin bag filled with gold and to cover the outside with red gold. Symbolism: o Fill his skin with the most precious metal around and the red gold alludes to his bloody death Loki in charge of obtaining gold, how By tricking another dwarf The dwarves are gradually being dragged into the dilemma of the gods, here they are being dragged down by the curse of this gold. This other dwarf (Andvari) has the ability to change shapes (a Pike fish). Loki catches him in the net, and asks for ransom for the price of gold. He does have a stash of gold, which Loki takes, but Andvari has only one gold ring left. Andvari is the first instance of a dwarf guarding his gold (behaving like a dragon) Diff b/w this dwarf and dragoon is that he doesn’t go after the thieves of his gold, but pronounces a curse on it From The Lay of Reign: What’s peculiar about this curse Loki is getting this gold, but he doesn’t get affected by the curse only the two dwarf brothers (Regin and a third brother), the dwarf father, and eventually humans. The gods are already cursed by gold in general. Loki ignores the curse, as he is not affected by it. He brings the gold to the Aesir brothers and they give it back to the dwarf father. Loki predicts the death of Regin and his father The fact that dwarves mine the gold does not keep them from being affected by it. After all this Andvari returns to his rock (or his home). This was a ransom, why would they give whole heartedly The dwarf can’t see the contradictions of his own thinking (in this way they are like the gods) Stanza 9: He doesn’t understand the symbolism of his request, as to what the red gold means and wishes to keep it for his own means This dwarf has now fell under this greed for gold. Now enters the 3 son (Fafnir). The two remaining brothers asks for a share of the gold, which he refuses to do. Fafnir, kills his father for the gold, stabbing him while he is asleep deeply deceitful act, no). Hreidmar calls to his daughter for help, but t9hey refuse to kill their bother. He call them a name that alludes to their disloyalty and treachery—Wolf girl--- Fenrir is the ultimate wolf. On the one hand the wolf symbolizes treachery, but from the perspective of those who don’t understand what the wolf means (i.e. the gods) After he dies, Regin doesn’t try to avenge his father but asks for a share, which Fafnir refuses to give. For the sake of gold and through treachery and betrayal, they will kill each other. Regin turns to his sister, and she refuses again to aid in killing Fafnir and urges him to get the gold without violence. So, Regin has to turn to a mortal (Sigurd, a very young man) who gets humans involved with this curse good. Then something marvelous happens: Fafnir, literally turns into a dragon (as in, he has all this gold to guard). Dragons in this culture are not only guards of gold but desire the gold for themselves. Regin doesn’t kill his brother himself and instigates Sigurd to do it. Regin enables the youth to do so by forging him a special sword (Gram). The sword was so sharp that it could cut through a piece of wool floating down the Rhine and cut through Regin’s anvil. Involving the human in this treacherous plot, and links another species in this, now, universal curse. Here we see the dwarves further fail to bring everyone back into the golden age, but further into the treacherous Iron/wolf age Regin will hide behind a bush and egg on this innocent Sigurd to defeat this dragon. Regin advises him to wait in a whole in the path of the dragon for ambush. Fafnir falls into the hole and as he crawls around, Sigurd stabs his stomach with Gram. A conversation ensues: Why is the dragon surprised he is killed by a boy He wants to know his motive, Sigurd didn’t have greed for this gold, but owed Regin a favor Fafnir had the helm of Terror which was supposed to make him invincible, he is surprised he could be wounded Sigurd, is wary of giving his true name and origins: “Preeminent beast”: Sigurd is very respectful Fafnir knows that there is an agent behind Sigurd Sigurd doesn’t betray Regin 6: last two lines Alludes to Regin’s cowardliness Fafnir suggests that Sigurd is captive of this gold curse Sigurd seems to understand the temporality of possession (what is the purpose of gold if one is bound to die anyway) Fafnir warms Sigurd that he is going to be betrayed by Regin: Sigurd is aware of this Fafnir dies, and Regin reappears out of the bush. He drinks the blood of his dead brother, then tells Sigurd: THINK: why drink the blood and eat the heart To acquire Fafnir’s dragon-ness The fact that he is capable of doing these two things, show how far the gold has denatured him Sigurd does what is told and roasts the heart, and he was checking to see if the heart was done and poked it with his finger and burns himself, and Sigurd tastes (unwittingly) the blood of the dragon. Somehow, tasting Fafnir’s blood, gives him the ability to understand the language of birds. There were some nuthatches (birds) commenting on his situation nearby and they say: THINK: What’s with the birds They seem to be caught in the same vicious loop, and yet they are bird The whole world is infected with the curse of the gold Sigurd is not brought down by gold, but by the love of a woman (Brynhild) The curse of gold has been transitioned to the curse of a woman