A reducing elbow is used to deflect water flow at a rate of 30 kg/s in a horizontal pipe upward by an angle θ = 45° from the flow direction while accelerating it. The elbow discharges water into the atmosphere. The cross- sectional area of the elbow is 150 cm2 at the inlet and 25 cm2 at the exit. The elevation difference between the centers of the exit and the inlet is 40 cm. The mass of the elbow and the water in it is 50 kg. Determine the anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place. Take the momentum-flux correction factor to be 1.03.
February 11, 2016 – Animal Nutrition GI tract is a unique system providing the means by which an animal accomplishes: Digestion of food consumed Absorption of essential nutrients Conservation of water Synthesis of essential vitamins and other nutrients Gastrointestinal Tract and Nutrient Utilization Convert complex nutrient sources into forms that the animal can absorb and use Digestion – converting complex feed nutrients into absorbable forms Absorption – digested nutrients cross the cellular lining (membranes) of the GI tract Classification of Various Digestive Systems Based on type of diet o Herbivores – primarily plants o Carnivores – other animals o Omnivores – combination of plants and animals Based on digestive physiology o Monogastric o Ruminant Classification of Various Digestive systems Swine – omnivore, monograstic Poultry – omnivore, monograstic, complex foregut and relatively simple intestinal tract Dogs and cats – monograstic carnivores Horses and mules – monogastric herbivores Ruminants – consume and digest plant materials and are classified as herbivores (cattle, sheep, goats, deer, elk, many wild species) o Pregastric fermenters (versus postgastric) Gastric means stomach Fermentation chamber with a structure full of bacteria before the stomach – “rumen” Bacteria = main source of