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Obtain the Fourier series expansion for the waveform shown

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780073380575 | Authors: Charles Alexander ISBN: 9780073380575 128

Solution for problem 17.5 Chapter 17

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits | 5th Edition

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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780073380575 | Authors: Charles Alexander

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits | 5th Edition

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Problem 17.5

Obtain the Fourier series expansion for the waveform shown in Fig. 17.49.

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Ch. 9 Language What is language Language: spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Do other species have language ­ Animals can communicate with each other ­ Bee dance ­ Vervet monkeys ­ Different calls for “snake” “eagle” “leopard” ­ Chimps and other primates ­ Relatively successful ­ Washoe could use more than 245 signs ­ Can create new combinations of words ­ Can access some abstract concepts Human language is unique ­ Human language is recursive: sentences can be infinitely long by embedding ­ Human language is productive (and creative): you can make sentence and words no one has heard before ­ Human language can be more abstract than animal language has ever been shown to be ­ Even the most advanced chimp has never surpassed a 3 year old in terms of language ability Phonemes ­ Writer or rider: pronounced the same ­ Called a “flap” ­ not pronouncing the “t” or the “d” Phonetic inventory ­ Languages have different phonetic inventories ­ Some languages use “clicks” as phonemes ­ Some languages use tones to express different meanings Language rules ­ Cat ­ cats: s sounds like s ­ Dog ­ dogs: s sounds like z Morphemes ­ Morpheme = smallest unit of meaning in a language ­ E.g. ‘unbreakable’ ­> ‘un­break­able’ ­ Some languages have very rich morphology ­ Languages vary in the concepts they mark morphologically Types of morphemes ­ 2 types ­ Content morphemes: carry most of the meaning ­ Ex. dog, soda, curtain ­ Function morphemes: add details to meaning, servce grammatical purposes ­ Ex. by, on, the Syntax ­ When sentences have a structure that sounds good to native speakers of a language, we say they are g​ rammatical ­ E.g. I like movies ­ Grammatical judgments may differ depending on dialect ­ Grammatical does not mean meaningful Pragmatics ­ Sometimes we encode meaning by what we don’t say ­ Grice’s Maxims ­ Quantity ­ don’t say too little; don’t say too much ­ Quality ­ tell the truth; say what you mean ­ Relevance ­ contribute relevant info within the conversational context ­ Manner ­ be direct and logical, avoid ambiguity The brain and language ­ Aphasia: impairment in language, usually caused by left­hemisphere damage ­ Broca’s aphasia: difficulty with language production ­ Wernicke’s aphasia: difficulty with language comprehension 4/15 Review ­ Language is composed of rules in your mind that you are often not consciously aware of ­ Ex. flapping (t/d) rule, sentence structure Universal grammar ­ Explaining language development ­ Noam chomsky ­ universal grammar ­ properties of language that are common across all languages ­ Language acquisition device (LAD) ­ Predictable progression of language development Receptive language ­ Ability to understand language Phonemes ­ 4 months: distinguish speech sound ­ Pair sounds with face that makes the sounds ­ 7 months: sound segmentation Universal phoneme perception ­ 6 months: universal phoneme perception ­ 7 months: develop ability to segment sounds ­ 8 month: already starting to develop language specific phoneme perception How to identify words ­ How do babies figure out “cup” from “This is a cup” ­ Speech is not like writing ­ there are no spaces between every word Statistical word learning ­ Babies use statistics to figure out where word boundaries are Statistical learning ­ Stats also affect the age at which certain sounds are acquired ­ Children acquire the ability to produce the sounds of their language between ages 1­8 (most sound by age 4) ­ However the older in which the acquired sounds can differ between languages ­ English children learn to pronounce /v/ rather late, closer to 5 ­ Swedish children learn to pronounce /v/ relatively early, close to age 3 Syntax comprehension ­ Syntactic development usually begins during the child’s 2nd year, and is largely complete by 4 years of age ­ Around 12 months, prefer to listen to correct word order ­ Around 17 months (before can combine words in production) children can use word­order to interpret sentences ­ example, “Cookie Monster is tickling Big Bird” vs. “Big Bird is tickling Cookie Monster” ­ Respond better to well­formed command (e.g. Throw me the ball) at “two word stage” than poorly­ formed command (throw ball) ­ Especially interesting given that the poorly­formed commands correspond to their own productions Receptive skills summary ­ Phonology ­ Babies start acquiring the sounds of their language at 4 months ­ lose the ability to perceive sounds of phonemes not in their language around 7­8 months ­ Morphology ­ Babies learn word boundaries through statistical learning Syntax ­ Children start to understand syntax at age 2 ­ Pragmatics ­ Babies can not learn a second language from non­human sources Productive skills ­ Understanding comes much early than production ­ By 5 months babies can respond to their name ­ By 8 months children begin to understand common phrases (e.g.stop it!) ­ By 16 months children's receptive vocab ranges between 90­320 words Stages of babbling 1. Reflexive vocalization (0­2 months) a. Crying, coughing, sneezing 2. Cooing and higher (2­4 months) 3. Vocal play (4­ 6 months) a. Experimental play with sounds b. Sounds become more consonant­like and vowel­like c. Repertoire is limited: (g, k) early on, (m,n,p,b,d) later on d. Loud vs. soft, high vs. low, sustained vowels Early words ­ First word occurs between 10­15 months Syntactic production ­ One word stage ­ age 1 to 2; speak mostly in single words ­ Two word stage: begins about age 2; speak in 2 word statements ­ Telegraphic speech: use mostly nouns and verbs (e.g. want juice) Critical period hypothesis ­ Period in early life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development Universalism vs. linguistic relativism ­ Chomsky proposes that not only is there a universal capacity to learn language, but also that all languages are the same underlyingly ­ Your brain has a set of “switches” (called parameters) that you turn on and off depending on language Linguistic relativism ­ Contrasting theory:linguistic relativity ­ The language you speak does affect the way you think/perceive the world ­ Sapir­whorf theory (aka linguistic determinism): language determines the way we think ­ Older theory, obviously inaccurate because you can understand things that you don't have words for ­ Linguistic relativity: revised theory, language merely influences the way you think in certain aspects Color ­ Language you speak can affect perception of color Material ­ Developmental pattern for english and yucatec classification preferences with stable objects: material versus shape Spatial ­ Guugu yimithirr speakers can tell what direction they are facing at all times (even in a closed room) ­ The language has only geographic directions, no “left” or “right” ­ Speakers of egocentric languages like english do not have this ability Perception ­ Japanese subjects: detected difference 9% of time ­ French subjects: detected difference 95% of time Working memory ­ Piraha ­ No words for number

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Chapter 17, Problem 17.5 is Solved
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Textbook: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
Edition: 5
Author: Charles Alexander
ISBN: 9780073380575

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 17.5 from chapter: 17 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/10/17, 05:48PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, edition: 5. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Expansion, fig, fourier, obtain, Series. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 18 chapters, and 1560 solutions. Since the solution to 17.5 from 17 chapter was answered, more than 405 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Fundamentals of Electric Circuits was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073380575. The answer to “Obtain the Fourier series expansion for the waveform shown in Fig. 17.49.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 12 words.

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Obtain the Fourier series expansion for the waveform shown