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The article “Effect of Granular Subbase Thickness on

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 11E Chapter 5.3

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Problem 11E

Problem 11E

The article “Effect of Granular Subbase Thickness on Airfield Pavement Structural Response” (K. Gopalakrishnan and M. Thompson, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2008:331-342) presents a study of the effect of the subbase thickness on the amount of surface deflection caused by aircraft landing on an airport runway. In six applications of a 160 kN load on a runway with a subbase thickness of 864 mm, the average surface deflection was 2.03 mm with a standard deviation of 0.090 mm. Find a 90% confidence interval for the mean deflection caused by a 160 kN load.

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1 Abiotic Altruism Biodiversity Biotic Biome Carrying capacity Climate Community Consumers Decomposers Density dependent Density independent Ecology Ecosystem Ecosystem diversity Genetic diversity Innate Learning Population Population ecology Primary producers Proximate Survivorship Ultimate Weather 1. The study of how individuals of a species in a geographic area and how it changes over time Population ecology 2. Unselfish behavior that could lower the fitness of the individual performing the behavior Altruism 3. The physiological or genetic mechanism for a behavior Proximate 4. Organisms that acquire energy from eating other organisms Consumers 5. In general, an area along with all the biotic and abiotic components Ecosystem 6. Organisms that acquire energy from digesting decaying material or detritus Decomposers 7. A group of individuals within a species found in a given area at a particular time Population 8. Non­living factors Abiotic 9. Inborn behaviors Innate 10. Long term patterns of temperature and rainfall for a given area Climate 2 11. Which number would designate the biome with the highest variation in annual precipitation 1 12. Which number would designate the arctic tundra biome 5 13. Different types of research have all concluded that global climate change is: making climates more extreme. 14. A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats are attracted to the urine deposits. Which of the following is a proximate cause of this increased urination It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle. 3 15. Innate behaviors: are expressed in most individuals in a population. 16. Why is it likely that humans undergo kin selection Humans often provide resources to kin to increase fitness. The 2010 age­structure pyramid for Niger indicates that the population of Niger: was increasing. 18. How can human population size keep increasing despite decreased fertility rates Population size will continue to increase as long as the average fertility is above the replacement rate. 19. According to the competitive exclusion principle, two species cannot continue to occupy the same: niche. 20. Why does net productivity diminish with increasing trophic levels Due to poor energy transfer efficiency, most energy is lost at higher trophic levels. 21. Which of the following locations is the main reservoir for nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle Atmosphere 22. If all the individuals in the last remaining population of a particular bird species were all highly related, which type of diversity would be of greatest concern when planning to keep the species from going extinct genetic diversity 4 23. The most serious consequence of loss of biodiversity to humans would be: the potential loss of ecosystem services on which people depend. 24. The main factor that leads to the loss of biodiversity is: A. habitat fragmentation. B. industrialization. C. pollution. D. transportation. 25. Which country is growing the most rapidly out of this list below A. China B. Estonia C. Kenya D. South Africa . 26. The eight climographs in the figure show the yearly temperature and precipitation averages for each month for locations on Earth. Which climograph shows the climate for location 2 5 F 27. Suppose that a friend says that the snow and cold this winter is proof that global warming isn’t really occurring. What is the flaw in your friend’s logic While the average global temperature is increasing, local temperatures and precipitation will vary. 28. How might global warming impact terrestrial biomes Increased evaporation from plants 29. A question about why a behavior occurs relates to: ultimate causation. 30. Which of the following describes a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause B. A female bird lays her eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day. 31. Learning has the most influence on behavior when: making mistakes does not result in death. 33. How do altruistic behaviors arise through natural selection By his/her actions, the altruist increases the likelihood that some of its genes will be passed on to the next generation. 34. Based on a comparison of the age structure pyramids, which of the following would likely be a higher priority in Canada rather than in Niger Providing long term care for the elderly 6 7 35. Which of the arrows represents the carrying capacity C 36. Which of the arrows represents the most rapid population growth B 8 37. What is the fundamental niche of Chthamalus The upper and lower intertidal zones 38. If there were no difference in the distribution of Chthamalus after the addition of Semibalanus, you could conclude that: Chthamalus is the better competitor of the two species. 39. Matter is gained or lost in ecosystems. How does this occur Matter can be moved via organisms from one ecosystem to another. 40. The arrows represent the transfer of energy between the various trophic levels. Which letter represents an organism that could only be a primary consumer C 41. Considering the global carbon cycle, which of the following is the largest reservoir of carbon Atmosphere 42. What is the biological significance of genetic diversity between populations Diversity allows adaptation to local conditions. 43. Why does high species richness result in high productivity More species = more niches 44. A land developer and several ecologists are discussing how a parcel of private land should be developed while saving twenty hectares as natural habitat. The land developer suggests that the twenty hectares be divided into twenty separate one­hectare areas. The ecologists suggest that it would be better to have one intact parcel of twenty hectares. What is the significance of these different arrangements of twenty hectares The isolated plots will be more vulnerable to effects from habitat fragmentation. 9 Average temperature Average temperature 45. The temperature is measured on the Y­axis in degrees Celsius; the month is given on the X­ axis for the current year. What locality do you think this is What biome is it in Iceland; tundra

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Chapter 5.3, Problem 11E is Solved
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Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

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