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The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in a gas sample

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 16E Chapter 5.3

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Problem 16E

The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in a gas sample is measured by a spectrophotometer and found to be 85 ppm. Through long experience with this instrument, it is believed that its measurements are unbiased and normally distributed, with an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 8 ppm. Find a 95% confidence interval for the concentration of CO in this sample.

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 Worldwide Imperialism  Europe  Italy and Germany trying to acquire territory like Br, Fr, Sp  Leads to major conflict  United states  1803-buoght Louisiana  1840s from war with Mexico  Alaska  We’ve been acquiring lots of territory  There isn’t always support for it  Like trying to get santa demego  Manifest Destiny  Wanted to see US expand  Expectations of continued expansion  Should US be a national power  East Asia and the Pacific  US starts looking at China  China- most favored nation status  Some imports from that part of the world  Negotiation trade agreement for most favored nation status- if US has trade relations with one country, China can join in too.  Late 19 century monopolies of trade in China from large European powers  1844- first US-China treaty  Foundation for Open Door Policy in order to have equal access for any country to trade with any region in China  Response to ‘spheres of influence’  all nations should have equal trade rights to all regions of China  Fredrick Jackson turner  Turner Thesis  The US has reached the Pacific coast  No more expansion within North America  People still looked west  Can’t go east, b/c Europe is over there  Would solve some of the social problems and shortages in the US  Looked outside of the US for markets  Hawaii  Merchants try to get ahold of natural resources from Hawaii  Plus missionaries come  Overthrow of the monarch  Queen Liliuokalani  1891 became queen  US Navy  Important b/c threats came from Europe and a natural protection from Europe is the ocean  Mexico is no threat; we beat them  Needed for overseas expansion  1885-1889 Secretary of the Navy- William C Whitney  Convinced Congress to get funds for better ships  Alfred Thayer Mahan  President of Naval War College  The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783  The navy is what gave countries the ability to establish empires and expand their base of power  Elements central to greatness on the seas (3)  Production of goods for foreign trade  Ships to bring these goods wherever  Where you send the goods- colonies  Need to establish colonies to produce natural resources for trade  The establishment of empire is important***********  Stressed  Merchant Marine- transport goods  Large Modern Navy- to provide protection for those transporting goods and projecting US power into the world  Vision of Empire  US extending power outside North America  Need ships to do this  To construct canal that allows passage through North and South America  Important to places that US Naval ships can stop on islands  We should get Hawaii.  Moving Forward  President William McKinley  Theodore Roosevelt  Projection of US power abroad  Conflict with other countries that are trying to do the same thing  Spanish American War  Setting the Stage  Congress voted for modern navy that focused on battleships (1890)  Cuba  Sugar is the big thing coming out of Cuba  One of the last Sp colonies in the Western hemisphere  But had been trying to get independence for decades  1895- fighting brutal- revolution- ended up in concentration camps  200 thousand Cubans died in the concentration camps  Pressure for the US to become involved in Cuban affairs  Modern Newspaper  1895- major newspapers in US having issues of their own  William Randolph Hearst- New York Journal  Joseph Pulitzer- New York World  Yellow journalism  Not above fabricating/enhancing the news for sales  Makes stuff up about Cuba  They keep doing it b/c it sales  Causes of the Sp-Am War  Cuba- unrest in Cuba  Yellow Journalism  American imperialism- desire to acquiring territory  Humanitarian Resources- ppl who are appalled by what’s going on in Cuba  Big Business- want sugar from Cuba  Glory- hearing about family members that went off to war; young men want to experience the same thing; “let’s go help Cuba and go to War!”- This is their opportunity to see the world  Same atmosphere as 9/11  Those boys are in for a surprise  Their experience isn’t what they think it will be in the South (lots of bugs- EW)  Sparks  Enrique Dupuy de Lome letter  Sp ambassador to the US  William McKinley is Pres  Says bad things about McKinley  He’s easily swayed  He knows that they don’t plan on doing anything that they promised  Hearst gets the letter and published it  McKinley sends a battleship to Cuba  Sinking of the Maine  Explosion on ship and it sinks  Lots of sailors die  Accusations that Sp is responsible  Am want to go to war  It might have been Cuban insurgents  Wants Am to go to war with Sp so they could get independence  The explosion can from inside and could have been an accident  Teller amendment  Congress believed that Cuba was and should be independent  Demand that Sp withdraw its forces and govt from Cuba  Authorization from the Pres to use force to make Sp leave  Recognition that Cubans might be nervous  There was no intention of US annexing Cuba  ***************once it was published, Sp declares WAR ON US***********  Declaration of War  Congress declares war on Sp  Now it’s official  John Hay “splendid little war”  There’s a difference b/w declaring and actually fighting a war  Mobilizing for War  Navy  Alfred Mahan  Navy provides first line of defense  Prepared  Army  Not prepared  Not trained as a group  national guard  not well trained  substandard weapons  not sure they can fight outside of US  volunteers  they need to be trained  sets up training camps in the South  climate needs to be the same as the one they’re going to fight in  bad food (not used to red beans and rice), not enough supplies, sanitation is bad, never seen cockroaches before  war department  how are we getting them there  Navy  Early planning  Jan 1898  Philippines  Sent Sp to the Philippines as a bargaining chip  Admiral George Dewey  April 31 gets there  Sank Sp fleet without a loss of single life  That doesn’t get them the Philippines  Waits for army to come as backup  Emilio Aguinaldo  We’ll work with Am to overthrow Sp  Blockade around Cuba  Nothing is going in or coming out  Army  Tampa, FL—west coast  Place to amass forces and then send to Cuba  1898—one RR and one pier  Slow getting to Tampa and leaving Tampa  No one designated to load ships (problematic)  Last thing going in should be the first thing coming out  They don’t think about that. Everything is just thrown in there.  Cuba- Daiquiri- east of Santiago  Landing is un-opposed  Some of these ships were merchant ships  Just get close, doesn’t dock, throws everything overboard, & leaves  Now everything is wet and can’t be used  Horses also thrown overboard; aren’t close enough to shore; they die  General Shafter  Had to gather everything from the water  Luckily, the Sp hasn’t arrived yet.  No one is prepared for the tropical diseases  Troops are getting sick  Marilia or yellow fever  He has to decide what to do  Let’s launch attack  San Juan Heights  July 1—1700 causalities  Rough Riders  Mainly African Americans  Attacked up Kettle Hill under heavy fire  They were tired of being there  Teddy Roosevelt  Surrender  16 of July  Sp surrender  They don’t know about the general’s sick troops  Sp loses Cuba  Fighting stops in just 2 weeks  But US still has troops in the Philippines  Manila  15 thousand Am forces arrive in July  15 thousand Sp troops already there defending  13 August—assault on Manila  Sp shots few then wave white flag  Surrender on Aug 13  10 Dec 1898- war formally ended  Treaty of Paris  Cuba gained its independence  Sp ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to US  US bought Philippines for $20 million  Treaty consequences  Acquisition of territory  Without getting US citizenship  Foraker Act  Applied to Puerto Rico  They’re US citizens  Civilian govt with legislature  1902 official US territory  Filipino independence movement  Aguinaldo  1899-1902 –cost  Conflict until Aguinaldo is captured  4200 Am soldiers and 20,000 Filipinos  $4million  First governor of the Philippines  Not US citizens  This guy is William Howard Taft (future US Pres)  Consequences of 1880s-1890s  Hawaii and Samoa  All 4 territories had excellent harbors  Project US power in that region  Post Sp-Am War  Election of 1900  2 party election  Candidates  William Jennings Bryan- D  US needs to stop expanding  William McKinley- R  Not opposed to expansion  Teddy Roosevelt is VP for McKinley  Jan 1901 William McKinley is sworn in  McKinley is shot by an anarchist at a convention  Roosevelt is now Pres  In favor of Mahan  Pursue the construction of the Panama Canal  Roosevelt Corollary added to the Monroe Doctrine  Post Sp-Am War  Election of 1900  Candidates  William Jennings Bryan- D  William McKinley- R  Shot at exposition at Buffalo on September 11.  Teddy Roosevelt is Pres  $418 annual ave. income in 1901  Roosevelt  One of the important Pres since Lincoln  No one equaled his importance  Colorful character  Fitness nut  Track record in public service  First progressive Pres  Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson  Construction of Panama canal  Expanding US position in the world  “Speak softly and carry a big stick. You will go far.”  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (on test)  Wanted to keep Euro nations out  1823  US responsibility to prevent Euro interference in western hemisphere  US become “police men” of the western hemisphere  Panama Canal Project  Columbia had control of this area  Fr- Ferdinand de Lesseps  1870s Fr begin to construct canal  Cost too much, didn’t have enough $ to complete  Br is also interested in this project  Clayton- Bulwer treat of 1850  US and Br are part of canal project  Neither would act without the other one being involved  Columbia enters agreement with Fr  Hay- Pauncefote Treaty/ Treaty of 1901  US could act alone to get canal constructed  Br not part of equation anymore  Philippe Bunau- Varilla  Wants company involved where project is being constructed  Columbia vs. Nicaragua  Congress debates how easy it would be use what land  Where should we allocate the funds  Volcano erupted in Nicaragua  Canal should be built in Panama  Columbia had to agree to give up that land  Language in treaty limited sovereignty of Columbia  Philippe paid some money to start fight  Teddy send message, sends ships  Revolution is success  US recognizes independence of Panama  Philippe is first Panamian ambassor for the US  1904- Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty  Granted US forever control over 10 mile strip of territory for canal  US gave Panama $10 million  US agreed to pay annual rent of $250  US made Panama protector of the US  If Panama was threated, US would provide protection  US wants to make sure the canal is protected  Ultimate cost  1904 is when US physically gets involved  10yrs later, it’s completed  $400 million when completed  One of world’s greatest engineering feats  Untended benefit in US involvement  Malaria, yellow fever  Medical branch of military had to come up with treatments for these diseases  Advancement for tropical diseases  END FOR EXAM 2 No detailed questions This is context  US involvement on WW1  Europe 1914  Germany, Austria- Hungary, France, Britain  Before 1860 Germany didn’t exist the way it does today  Franco-Prussia war  1871 ends in treaty  2 provinces become part of Germany again  3 emperors league  Willy- fashionatisa  Crazy about military uniforms  All about increasing Germany power  He breaks up 3 emperor league  Enters alliance with Austria Hungary  Triple alliance with Italy now  Fr don’t want to be by themselves  Forms alliance with Russia  Br doesn’t have any alliances and doesn’t want any  Willy wants one with them  Br and Fr are going to become better friends  Willy gives Fr more countries to be allies with  Moroco is where sparks start  1905 nd  Willy the 2 wants that territory  Alger-sersa conference  Italy sides with Fr  Fr gain control of Moroco  Rebellion in Moroco  Willy sends gunboat near coast of rebellion  Fr doesn’t want to go to war w/ Germany over Moroco but doesn’t want to lose it either  Br says if you threaten Fr, we’re coming after you  Fr says, hey, you can have some other African land  Willy says sure, there’ll be gems and oil and stuf  Fr gave them land w/o natural resources  Willy got played  Germany upset balance in power worldwide by challenging Br  Br and Fr are now a lot closer  Need one more crisis  Austria hungary also wants to expand  In June of 1914, Archduke Ferdinand  Black hand sends assassins to kill Archduke  Serbia needs to pay!!  But I might start a war with Russia if I do this  Calls Willy to ask for back-up  Willy asks Russia to not get involved  France Joseph gives ulimatium to Chapter 4: The United States Becomes a World Power (p.217) By the 1890s, the United States had emerged as an economic power but had not yet exerted its military and diplomatic clout abroad. Some Americans vigorously advocated a stronger presence in world affairs for economic, religious, cultural, and strategic reasons. Over the course of the next three decades, the United States moved from its traditional isolationist position to engage in two wars, acquire extra-continental territories, and take a leading role in international treaty-making. Like the industrialization that fueled America’s emergence as a world power, the debate over foreign policy sparked political disagreements and social turmoil. 44. The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) (p.217) The publication of Alfred T. Mahan’s study of the role of sea power in national history opened a public debate on the creation of a modern navy as a prelude to American emergence as a global power. Mahan supporters such as Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot proved highly influential in shaping American foreign policy in the Progressive Era. 45. Platt Amendment (1903) (p.222) After declaring war on Spain in 1898, the United States occupied the former Spanish colony of Cuba for five years. In 1901, Secretary of War Elihu Root drafted a set of articles as guidelines for the relationship between the United States and Cuba. Cubans, who had fought a long and bloody war for independence from Spain, resisted the as an encroachment on their sovereignty. However, when faced with pressure from US officials, the Cubans inserted the Platt Amendment (named for a Connecticut senator) into their 1902 Constitution. The United States used the amendment several times to send troops to Cuba to prop up friendly governments and to protect American investments. 46. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) (p.224) Theodore Roosevelt’s expansion of the Monroe Doctrine to include American intervention in the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere represented an example of the president’s admonition to “walk softly and carry a big stick.” Disavowing any intention toward territorial claims, the Corollary promised American intervention whenever nations foiled to “obey the primary laws of civilized society,” a situation that apparently included economic as well as civil and political “crimes.” Allying American interests with those of humanity generally, the Roosevelt Corollary assured Central and South American nations that intervention would be undertaken only in “extreme cases.” 47. President Wilson’s War Message to Congress (1917) (p.227) On April 2, 1917, Woodrow Wilson appeared before Congress to lay out his rationale for entering the war raging in Europe. His speech outlines his reasons for declaring war on Germany, including his concerns for national security and his belief that the United States could “bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself as last free.” Americans had resisted entry into World War I, and Wilson himself had campaigned for reelection in 1916 on the slogan, “He Kept Us Out of War.” Nevertheless, Congress responded enthusiastically to Wilson’s appeal and passed a declaration of war two days later. 48. Senator Robert M. La Follette Voices his Dissent (1917) (p.233) On April 2, 1917, after the sinking of several American vessels by German submarines, President Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war. The Senate approved the measure 82-6, but progressive Republican senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin led the opposition to Wilson’s politics. Sen. Robert La Follette was one of the leading opponents of U.S. participation in World War I. He saw it largely as a scheme to bring more money and power to corporate interests whose power he had fought so hard to rein in. In April of 1917, as the U.S. prepared to enter the war, La Follette gave this speech on the floor of the Senate against U.S. entry into the war. We present three slightly different versions of it: the first as recorded in the Congressional Record, the second as it was separately issued by the government at the time, and finally as a pamphlet put out by the Progressive Party 20 years later. La Follette's opposition to the war brought him fierce rebuke. He was targeted for censure by the Senate, denounced as a traitor in the media, and ostracized by his friends in Washington. 49. Propaganda and War (p.236) On the battlefields of Europe men engaged in a modern war made bloodier and deadlier by the technological advances of industrialization. In the United States support for the war in which the nation had suffered no attack was accomplished through the use of modern communication technology. Fighting for the “minds of men” in an all-out effort to create a “war-will,” former muckraking journalist George Creel marshaled the technologies of motion pictures, the press, telegraph, and cable to stamp out dissent and create a single supportive view of the war. 50. The Fourteen Points (1918) (p.239) In presenting his Fourteen Points as the goals of peace, Wilson embraced the highest democratic ideals and gave substance to his claim that the war would make the world safe for democracy. Across the globe, people responded with an outpouring of enthusiastic support for the President and his plan. Unfortunately, the individual points meant different things to different people. Particularly for people of color under imperial rule, the Fourteen Points proved to be a hollow promise. 51. Senator Lodge Proposes Reservation to the League of Nations (1919) (p.241) Although American public opinion generally supported the League of Nations concept, many Americans expressed concerns about how collective security would work in practice and whether this new international organization might compromise American sovereignty. Republican Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, a major political opponent of the president, led the effort to modify Wilson’s proposals in the Senate. 52. Black Soldiers Return Home (1919) (p.244) The ironies of fighting for democracy abroad were not lost on African American soldiers in the First World War. Many, including WEB DuBois, simultaneously praised the nobility of black soldiers’ service abroad and called on them to continue the fight for democracy at home. 53. The Occupation of Haiti (1920) (p.246) As the first self-governing black republic in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti carried a good deal of significance for many African Americans. In a series of articles published in The Nation, James Weldon Johnson, an influential black writer and leader in the NAACP, indicted the American occupation of Haiti as wrong-headed, motivated by corporate greed, and ultimately unnecessary. Chapter 5: The Interwar Years (p.255) By the end of World War I, many Americans were weary of turmoil and change. They responded ambivalently to modernity—new ideas, innovations, and attitudes that challenged traditional patterns of life and thought. While some celebrated the prosperity of the “Roaring Twenties,” others debated whether or not modernity was a good thing. Women had presented a united front in the push for suffrage, but the movement fractured in the 1920s as women debated Fundamentalists opposed new scientific theories and nativists pushed stricter immigration laws. Cultural conflict was not the only peril during the prosperous 1920s. When the economy plummeted at the end of the decade, many Americans lost their jobs, savings, and self-esteem. Some believed that capitalism itself had failed. Meanwhile, political leaders debated the best way to climb out of the Great Depression. President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs offered a comprehensive and increasingly controversial response to the economic crisis but, as his critics readily pointed out, failed to pull the country out of the Great Depression. 54. Opposing Positions on a Proposed Equal Rights Bill (1922) (p.255) Once woman suffrage became a part of the American Constitution, the unity that had bound women together in their quest for the franchise dissolved in a fight for and against an Equal Rights Amendment. The Women’s Party saw the ERA as the most efficient means of overcoming the hundreds of discriminatory state and federal laws. But labor activists, in particular, flared the ERA would destroy the protective laws for women that they had struggled so hard to achieve. 55. The Impact of the Automobile (1922) (p.258) Seven years before the publication of the Robert Lynds’ seminal study Middletown (1929), Allen Albert offered an analysis of the impact of the automobile as it destroyed old ways and opened new opportunities. 56. The Scopes Trial (1925) (p.261) The arrest of John Scopes on charges that he had taught evolution in the local high school produced the trial of the century in a courtroom in Dayton, TN. The trial pitted scientific explanations against religion, the rights of parents to determine the education of their children against professional educators’ right to teach, and the right of free speech and dissenting opinion against the power of the community. The following exchange pitted the nation’s foremost activist attorney, Clarence Darrow, against William Jennings Bryan, who attempted to defend the Biblical view. The ineptness of Bryan’s defense set the religious view back for decades to come; but the outcome of the trial was no victory for the scientific world either. 57. Immigration Restriction (1924) (p.272) Not until the mid-19020s did anti-immigration forces achieve the immigration restrictions they had sought for over forty years. Although the bureaucratic language of the restrictions appeared neutral, its racial, ethnic, and occupational preferences are present in the details. 58. Alain Locke on “The New Negro” (1924) (p.276) The explosion of black intellectual, artistic, and literary culture remembered as the Harlem Renaissance caught many Americans off guard. For Alain Locke, a Harvard-trained PhD (who had earlier been the first African American Rhodes Scholar), the vitality of the movement offered grounds for a great deal of optimism on a number of fronts. But while Locke highlighted the promise, he also hinted at new issues Americans would find themselves facing as the demographic and cultural makeup of the nation shifted after the First World War. 59. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address (1933) (p.278) By inauguration day, 1933, Americans needed a speech that would lift their spirits and provide them with a plan of action. Franklin Roosevelt provided both: pulling the nations out of its paralyzing fear and evoking the vision of progress and reform articulated by the Populist and Progressives of previous decades. 60. The Civilian Conservation Corps (p.283) Established during Roosevelt’s “First Hundred Days” in 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a relief program that enlisted 3 million young men to work on projects that protected the country’s natural resources and provided infrastructure for state and national parks. The CCC provided relief for unemployed young men, who lived in work camps and sent most of their wages back home to their struggling families. 61. The Federal Arts Project (p.290) Created in 1935, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) employed millions of Americans in various public works projects. The largest New Deal agency, the WPA put Americans to work building roads and monuments but also sponsored cultural programs. In this essay, originally intended for a report to Congress, an official with the WPA’s Federal Arts Project describes the activities of the Harlem Community Arts Center in New York City. 62. Share the Wealth Plan (1935) (p.293) When the New Deal failed to pull the nation out of the Depression, more radical plans of action emerged and gained support. Huey P. Long’s “Share the Wealth” plan promised to make “Every Man a King.” 63. Social Security Act (1935) As Huey Long and other critics pressured Roosevelt to expand the government’s role in helping the nation’s most vulnerable citizens, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins headed a special committee that devised a plan to provide a minimum level of economic security to as many Americans as possible. The first female cabinet member in the United States history, Perkins and her committee drafted the most significant piece of New Deal legislation to come out of Roosevelt’s first term in office. 64. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel (1937) (p.301) The New Deal encouraged the growth of labor unions by protecting workers’ rights to organize. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 established a national board to prevent employers from intimidating union organizers and members. While the federal courts had long been unsympathetic to the labor movement, this started to change during the New Deal. In 1937, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Act and seemed to guarantee both the right of workers to organize unions and the right of the government to intervene in the affairs of private corporations. 65. Republican and Democratic Platforms (1936) (p.304) The 1936 election offered the first big test of support for the New Deal and Roosevelt. Not surprisingly Democrats and Republicans viewed the New Deal in starkly different terms. Republicans offered a list of abuses by the Roosevelt administration. Democrats countered by presenting their actions in the language of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence. Post- Reconstruction Politics  Post- 1877  1877- Compromise  Rutherford B. Hayes  Hayes was honest  Someone else  Appointed friends to offices  Reputation of having not honest office  Hayes  1876 elected President  Stalwarts  Favor of doing friends a favor  Not happy that Hayes is Pres  Problems getting Republican nomination in 1880  1880 election b/w James A Garfield (R), Winfield Scoot Hancock (D), and James B Weaver (Greenback- Labor Party)  Favor of paper money  Didn’t like gold standard  All Pres had been Republican  James Garfield and Chester A Arthur  Close call 4.4% difference  They won Pres and VP  Stalwarts hoped he would work for them  1881-sworn in  July 1881-shot  Chester A Arthur  Now Pres  One of weakest US Pres  Congress tries to assert power  Stalwarts know he’s corrupt (*laughs evilly*)  Efficient and honest  Stalwarts not happy about this  Terrible reputation prior to his election  Efficient and honest as Pres  Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883  Senator George Pendleton  Background-spoil system- “who you knew”  Offices didn’t run smoothly  Far-reaching consequences  Merit system- clear guidelines and qualifications  Provisions  Certain % of jobs could be gotten only after exam  Classified jobs-pass at certain level  Go with person more qualified  Major political reform- way that people can hold job  Chester A Arthur (Reform Pres)  90% of jobs today- through merit system  People don’t want him back  Don’t let him run again  In 1883- pushed for tariff reform  2 ndmajor piece of legislation  As a rule- Post Civil War  Demo opposed tariffs  Rep supported tariffs  More business men in Rep- good for Am products  Demo farmers- wanted cheaply as possible goods  Election of 1884  James G Blaine (R) vs. Grover Cleveland (D)  Blaine- from Maine, friend of Ulysses S Grant  Cleveland- from NY, 2 political offices  One of dirtiest elections  Polar opposites  Character  Blaine- not honest, family man, veteran  Cleveland- squeaky clean, no scandal, paid for sub in war, draft dodger, bachelor, illegitimate children- admitted publically to 1 child and proved that he supported the child financially  “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion Speech”  By Blaine  Plays the blame game  Blaine lost NY by 10,000 votes  Election results  Cleveland won Progressive era  Definition  Organized response to industrialization and its socioeconomic consequences  Immigration  Urban  Concentration of corporate power  Widening class divisions  Age of scientific innovation  Govt involved in statically studies  About immigrants coming in  Women and children working in factories  How does women working affect the home lives  Age of social awareness  Why is prostitution taking place  Why is gambling happening  Linked to urban growth  Spanned 3 presidents  Division b/w classes  Middle class feels alienated  Reform movements  Devote Protestants  Religious conviction to clean up corruption  Wanted to solve gap in classes  T. Roosevelt, W. Wilson, Taft  TR Square Deal  WW New Deal  Work of numerous groups  NAACP- National Association for the Advancement  1909- interracial platform  Goal- to reduce racial violence and lynching  Prohibition Movement  Starts in 1820-40s  Late 1800s movement picks back up  18 amendment- prohibits transportation  Social gospel movement  Socioeconomic reform  Charles Sheldon “What Would Jesus Do”  Growth of cities, immigration, reforms  Women’s Suffrage Movement  Political reform in the States  Restoring sovereignty to “the people”  End political bosses  Direst primary  Allows the people to choose who is going run in the campaign  Local dominated by corrupt politicians  Try to give it back to honest people th  17 amendment- direct election of senators—1912&1913  Eliminates some political basses  Creating a virtuous electorate  People who vote based on knowledge that they had  Not corrupt—can’t be bought or given a job for a vote  Disenfranchise people who were considered corruptible or influenced  Immigrants, poor people  If you don’t have a job, you’re easily bought.  Political reform  Australian ballot  Secret ballot  Vote in privacy  Govt, rather than political parties, print document so that it is straight- forward and won’t trick people  Cuts down on corruption in politics  Personal resignation law  You didn’t have to be registered to vote before this  Dead people could vote  Go vote multiple times  1890  Proper ID at voting registration  Disfranchisement  Stop people who originally had no interest in voting  Poor, immigrants (little knowledge of language)  They didn’t want non-citizens to vote.  Immigrants allowed to vote by 1914  Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization 1906  Hard for immigrants to become citizen  Had to appear before judge  They spoke English and asked questions about country  Need 2 people to say that you have moral character and that you hold certain characteristics similar to the constitution  Had to live in US for 5 years  Literacy tests, poll taxes  Went around 15 amendment  Women’s suffrage th  19 amendment  1920 ratified  Elizabeth Cady Stanton  Susan B. Anthony  Economic & Social reform in the states  Progressive agenda  Try to strength organized labor to protect the weak  Wisconsin reformers  Governor Robert La Follette’s reforms  1900 becomes governor  Secure direct primary  Tax laws change  RR won’t get tax exemption anymore  Civil laws—employees must meet certain level of competence  1906 elected to US Senate—reforms continue  Regulate RR and utility rate  First state income tax  Workers got compensation  Minimum wage and hours for women  New York Progressives  Political corruption  Boss Tweed  Take down Tammany Hall  Regulate RR and utility companies  Electricity and natural gas  Companies can only charge so much people aren’t ripped off  Made things fairer for workers  Women and child labor laws  Urban poor  The Jungle  How the Other Half Lives  Advocate for minimum wage, right for worker to join unions  Unions they can demand higher pay  Movement’s focus  Grover Cleveland  First Demo Pres since before the Civil War*******  Accomplishments  Expanded civil servants  Lowered tariffs  Support ocean-going navy  Territorial expansion- colonies  Cuba  Lots of sugar (kinda coffee)  Hawaii  Pineapple, stopping for ships going to Asia  Opposed over-seas expansion  Interstate Commerce Act of 1886  Established the Interstate Commerce Commission  ICC- regulated interstate commerce and new inventions related to communications- telephone and electricity  Major increase in govt power******  First govt commission commerce that could regulate business  Thought that it’s the govt’s job to make life better  Election of 1888  Candidates  Grover Cleveland (D) vs. Benjamin Harrison ( R)  Major issue  Lots of money spent on this election  First election that a major amount of money was spent on campaigning business spent to support Harrison  Grand Army of the Republic (3 party)  Opposed Cleveland  Cleaned up corruption in petition  Which means they didn’t get jobs  One of the dirtiest elections  Lord Sackville- West Letter (foreigner)  Favored Cleveland  Printed in newspapers  Fake letter  Results  Popular  C- 48.6%  H- 47.9%  Electoral  C- 168  H- 233  Benjamin Harrison  Honest, hardworking, not bright  Accomplishments  McKinley Tariff  One of the highest tariffs in US history to this point  Sherman Anti-Trust Act  Controls monopolies  Problems- full of loop holes  Works with Teddy Roosevelt  Full of good intentions  Expansion- Hawaii  Hawaii- Queen Liliuokalani- Sanford Dole (bananas and pineapples)  Queen ruled over all Hawaiian islands  Dole wants them  Not smooth process- Hawaii annex  Election of 1892  Three Party Election  Cleveland (D), Harrison (R ), James B Weaver (Populists)  Farmers’ Alliance- People’s Party- Populist Party  Mid-west, after Civil War  One of the most important reforms  Populist- one of most important 3 parties  Populist Party Platform  Income tax (important*****)  Alternative way to generate money and eliminate tariffs  Progressive idea  8 hour work day  Buddy with unions  Child labor laws  High death rate- factory is unsafe  Make life better and healthier for children  Popular election of Senators  State legislatures used to voted, not people  The people should vote officials into office  Australian ballot  Secret ballot  No one can influence your vote  Initiative and Referendum  Average voting person has part of passing laws  People can sign petitions- put on ballot  Referendum- is people actually voting  Govt ownership of methods of communication  Telephone and telegraph  Restriction on immigration  From certain parts of the world  Cheap money  Standard backing is gold  Wanted silver added also  Increase in money for farmers  Actually makes value go down  ****Democrats take some of their ideas********  Election of 1893  Close election  Cleveland 46%---227ev (D)  Harrison 43%----145ev (R )  Weaver 8.5%----22ev (Populist)  First time 3 party gets some ev  Cleveland’s 2 ndterm in office  Not as successful  b/c country is hit by depression  overproduction by farmers  economic legislation by Harrison  Income tax bill  Thrown out as unconstitutional  Election of 1896  William McKinley (R ) vs. William Jennings Bryan (D & Populists)  McKinley—“Advance Agent of Prosperity”  Bryan—“ The Cross of Gold” speech  Common man nailed to gold cross by big business  Results  McKinley—51%-- 271ev  Bryan – 47.7%--176ev  Pres can’t pass legislation  McKinley Administration  “Advance Agent of Prosperity”  Promises pull through  New era of prosperity—put of depression  Conservative—big business friendly  Period of rapid social change  Darwin—survival of fittest  Progressive era  Woodrow Wilson  1912 Pres  New Freedom  Wilson’s Progressivism  His plan is most comprehensive during that time (after Civil War and before New Deal)  Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)  First major reduction in a protective tariff since the Civil War  37% protective tariff at the time  Reduced to 29% by this tariff  Adds things to free list (things that can be imported into country for free)  Over 300 items  Sugar, wool, steel rails (RR tracks), coal, and wood  Lowered price of goods in Am******************  Has hoped-for out-come  More foreign markets became open to Am markets******************  Issue related to economy  Federal Reserve Act 1913**************  Established the Federal Reserve  Federal Reserve- regulation of currency and the credit supply- interest rates  Tries to help the economy more in the direction that it needs to move  Small businesses can get loans for expansion from private banks  First efficient and most comprehensive banking system since th early/mid-19 century for US  Promised to go after monopolies  Clayton Anti-trust Act  Designed to target corporate practices that Congress and Pres deemed as not beneficial to the consumer  Price fixing is illegal  Various corporations had to sell at same price  Gave consumers less options  Big business forced small business to give higher prices  Tying contracts  Prevented some companies from buying cheaper products from other products b/c of a contract  Like Ford buying steering wheels from only one company and can’t buy from any of their competition for anything else  Interlocking directorates capitalized at $1 million of more  If you serve on more than one board, you might be more invested in one company than another. You make choices that benefits one and not the other.  You can’t be CEO of two companies that compete  Creates separation  Acquisition of stockholdings that lessened competition  You can’t buy a lot of stock in a competing company  It benefited labor and farmers  Labor unions and farm organizations were not the same as a company or monopoly  Sherman anti-trust act said that they were. This repeals that act.  Federal Warehouse Act  Intended to help farmers  Farmers could use crops or land as collateral to get low interest loan  Access to currency  Workingmen’s Compensation Act  1916  Only benefited federal service employees  During periods of disability  Forerunner of what we have today  Adamson Act  1916  Benefits RR workers  8 hour work day (Success for Unions!!)  Safety issues from workers falling asleep and getting tired  16 Amendment- Federal Income tax  Only applies to those who earned $3,000  About 5% of population  17 Amendment- Popular election of senators  The people can vote to decide who becomes a senator rather than state legislatures  Progressives wanted  Only wanted white, virtuosos (educated) men to vote  Progressive in what way  Want to see country moving forward  Advocate change due to industrial revolution  Access of goods to consumers  Reform that benefited the average citizen (helping/growing working/middle class)  (Democrats) Federal govt power used to help people should only be temporary  Becoming a World Power  US Foreign Policy, 1865-1913  Imperialism  Practice by which a nation acquires and holds colonies and other possessions, denies them self-government, and usually exploits them economically****************************  Br, Sp, Fr, Portugal  Am says that it isn’t like them  But we have been acquiring territory  Form of expansion  In imperialism, the colonies aren’t a part of that country; they can’t vote; they’re not really citizens. US is different. 2.19 Discussion 1865- 13, 14, 15 Civil War ends, Reconstruction starts 1877- End of Reconstruction 1898- Start of Sp-Am War 1903- Platt Amendment 1904- Roosevelt Corollary addition to Monroe Doctrine 1914- Beginning of WWI 1917- Wilson’s War Message to Congress La Follete’s response to Wilson Am enters WWI 1918- End of WWI We started US becoming a world power. b/w 1865 and 1898 People moving west Industrialization and urbanization Growing and expanding at rate never seen before Free land by virtue of Homestead Act (1862) Closing frontier in 1890 Darwinism----Socialism Social Darwinism Survival of the fittest (eat or be eaten) Rise of monopolies Race-based science (race is actually just a social construct) To make the country, we need to expand US gets left behind with the scramble to get Africa So we fight and beat the Sp Cuba’s independence from Sp is guaranteed Platt Amendment Relationships b/w US and Cuba Other nations can’t enter into treaties with Cuba Debt-free (pay for everything up front) US has free-territorial access to Cuba whenever it wants US buys Guantanamo Bay for $1 This means that US is gaining power US gets Philippians and Guam US as imperial power Monroe Doctrine 1823 Roosevelt Corollary 1904 is added Promised Am intervention whenever nations foiled to “obey the primary laws of civilized society” (among developing countries) (US takes over for the “benefit” of that country) Other countries expanding- taking parts of Africa WWI breaks out 3yrs of stalemate Wilson decides to ask Congress to get US involved Why b/c German submarines (U-Boat) are violating US neutrality b/c Zimmermann’s telegraph b/c for democracy (help protect democracy) ( imperial Germany govt- constitutional monarchy) La Follette’s dissent of Wilson’s war message US hasn’t been transgressed against Everyone else (other countries) isn’t really democracy (they mostly have monarchies) Why should we fight for democracy with these countries that aren’t democracies Poor people are going to fight a rich man’s war. US enters WWI 82 to 6  Economic and Social Reform in the States  New York Progressives  Movement’s focus  Theodore Roosevelt  Campaigns on Square Deal  Could curve big business  Make life better for individuals  Fairer for middle class  Doesn’t focus on race  Govt’s job to identify these big business and to elimante them  Square deal  TTR’s campaign promise  First major domestic problem- Trusts  Philander Knox -- 1902  Northern Securities Company  Controlled by big business  Controlled most RR in NW  Illegal restrate of trade  Sherman Anti-trust Act  First big case that used in break up big business  “Trustbuster”  Tries to stop big business  Breaks up trust  Fairer price for consumer  Anthratcite Coal Strikes  In Pennsylvania  John Mitchell leader of United Mine Workers Association  1902 in winter in NE  Coal shortage  TR didn’t use federal troops--- talked it out  Mine owners said fat chance  He announced that federal troops would seize mines  The owners came to the table to talk  Never happened before with pres’s power  He was giving labor a square deal  RR Regulation  1906—TR addresses problems  Most of RR controlled by handful of ppl  Could raise freight rates  Being borne by the consumer  Goes to Congress  Congress passed the Hepburn Act  ICC can control freight rate and demand to see their account books  Maximum RR rates  Financial records  Try to rate down for public good  Pres doesn’t have right to pass legislation, only Congress can  TR does request  Marked change in the Federal Govt’s role  Congress takes action in food  Food  Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle  Highlighted problems in meat packing industries  Sick cows going through, poor conditions, workers go to job sick b/c they don’t have sick days and might lose their jobs otherwise  Bought tainted meat  Meat Inspection Act of 1906  There were meat inspector, but they were corrupt  Designed to address issues raised by Sinclair  TR happy to sign it  Strict sanitarily regulations for meat  Formed meat inspection program  We still have this today--- corner stone  Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906  Dr. Harvey Wiley  For today, FDA approved, ingredients, labeling  Roots from this legislation  Back then, labeling was false  Now, illegal to falsely label sold stuf  Very important for ppl with allergies  Expand power of federal govt  If they don’t do these things, safety of public  Environment  Started b/c of interest in outdoors and out west  John Muir and the Sierra Club—preservationists  Ppl could enrich their spirits by being in contact  TR thought this was crazy  Conservationist  Oil reserves  Reserve land for general public but still using some land for mining and other resources  Giford Pinchot—head of the newly created US Forest Service  Creates national forests  TR expects him to be on board with him  1908 Presidential Election  Republican nominee—William Howard Taft  TR backed him  Democratic nominee—William Jennings Bryan  Socialist –Eugene Debs  Prohibition—Eugene Chafin  Outcome  Taft won  Taft Administration  Dollar Diplomacy  Supporting US commercial interests  Taft looks at business end, rather than security  Trustbuster  Filed 90 businesses against this  Standard oil and US steel targeted  Payne- Aldrich Tarif  Lower tarif  This guy is Republican—whoa, weird  It was joke  Barely lowered rate  Adds a couple of items to “free list”  Sea moss  Canary bird seed  Things that ppl aren’t normally going to buy  Doesn’t change much of anything  Mann- Elkins Act—ICC and discriminatory freight rates  ICC has more powers  ICC doesn’t have to wait for a complaint to launch an investigation  Protects consumer more  Bureau of mines  To control and limit use of resources  Mining of certain minerals especially coal  Favorable impression of Taft  Ballinger- Pinchot Afair  Secretary of interior oversees giving grants and extract resources from public lands  WY, AK  Opens public lands to develop corporately  Pinchot publically criticizes Ballinger for doing this  Taft fires Pinchot, accusing him of insubordination  Harms Taft’s reputation  TR doesn’t support Taft anymore  Election of 1912  TR wrote to 7 governors and said that he would like to run for Pres  Taft is re-nominated for Republican  TR is now Progressive (bull moose party)  Democrats—Woodrow Wilson  Campaign platforms  TR- New Nationalism  Wilson- New Freedom  In favor of continuing using Sherman anti-trust act  Election of 1912  Platforms  New Nationalism  Using federal govt to achieve democratic goals  Argued for change in what Am Nationalism meant b/c old Nationalism was about protecting rights of privilege  Social justice  Worker’s compensation  Regulate child labor  Income tax  Strong bureau  Women’s sufrage  New Freedom  Use federal govt to restore completion among small business  Strong advocate of free trade  Didn’t support high tarif  Results  Republican vote split  Wilson won  High-watermark for Progressivism  New Cabinet  10 members born in South  Southerners involved nationally  Republicans more conservative next time their voted into office  Wilson is last progressive pres Chapter 4 questions Opposing Positions on a Proposed Equal Rights Bill Elsie Hill supported the bill b/c she thought that it was unfair that women still lived in the social constraints of the past where women were excluded from public office even though their hard-earned taxes supported those seats. Florence Kelley opposed the bill b/c she thought that if it was passed, then all the precautions that were created to protect women would be thrown out. Women are created physically different from men and can’t perform the same tasks as them and vice versa, like child birth. Everything that separates men and women would have to be eliminated like single-sex bathrooms. Chapter 1- Reconstruction and Expansion, Assimilation and Exclusion 1. US Constitution, Amendments 13,14,15 The Constitutional Amendments that followed the Civil War settled the issue of slavery by making it illegal everywhere in the US, established the criteria for citizenship, and expanded the franchise to include all male citizens. 2. Frederick Douglass Assesses the Mistakes of Reconstruction (1880) In this document, former slave and civil rights leader Frederick Douglass considered the results of Reconstruction. 3. Sharecropping Contract (1879) Sharecropping emerged in the wake of the Civil War as a compromise of sorts between cash-poor cotton planters eager to re-establish a malleable but dependable agricultural labor force and freedmen, who proved unwilling to work under conditions that approximated their experience as slaves. In the event, contracts such as the one below favored the planters and merchants who furnished the capital and land, all but ensuring that AA tenant farmers would remain poor, effectively locked into a system of perpetual debt. 4. 1890 Mississippi Constitution The MS Constitution of 1890 provided the model for other Southern states intent on “purifying” the ballot box through the disfranchisement of AA voters. Prevented by the 15 Amendment to the US Constitution from disfranchising by race, white Mississippians added a carefully selected group of qualifications (and disqualifications) to voting rights in order to achieve the desired goal. Over time, poor whites also succumbed to the same inhibitions to voting, and an ever smaller number of white southerners exercised the franchise. 5. Louisiana’s “Grandfather Plan” (1898) Shortly after the adoption of the MS Constitution, Louisiana likewise rewrote its organic law, adding property requirements as necessary for exercising the franchise. To protect poor whites, the Louisiana Constitution included a “grandfather” clause, a provision that would become common in Southern law. 6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) This ruling by the US Supreme Court sanctioned legalized racial discrimination for the next 58 years by upholding the doctrine of “separate but equal.” The 1954 decision, Brown v. Board of Education, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. 7. A Red Record (1895) MS-born Ida B. Wells became a fiery advocate for anti-lynching legislation following the lynching of three friends in Memphis. As the following document suggests, she spared no words in attacking the presumed causes for the lynching of black men. Despite her lifelong efforts, the US did not enact national anti-lynching legislation. 8. Atlanta Exposition Address (1895) As the only black man invited to address the opening day celebration of the Atlanta Exposition, Booker T. Washington chose his words carefully. His presentation of black-white relations catapulted Washington to a position of uncontested prominence as the most influential authority on “the Negro question.” If his speech earned him praise from those some who considered his views progressive, it also raised critics who saw his position as an unacceptable compromise. 9. Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others (1903) Not everyone agreed with Washington’s view that blacks should abandon the quest for civic equality as an immediate goal. Foremost among his critics was WEB DuBois, the first AA to earn a Harvard University Ph.D. and one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). 10.The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) In the Western states, miners and laborers successfully agitated to prevent the importation of workers from China. First recruited to assist in the construction of the transcontinental RR, Chinese workers were soon viewed as a threat to American jobs and social order. 11.An Italian Immigrant’s Experience (1902) As the story of this Italian immigrant suggests, success in America was dependent on hard work, communal effort, and good luck. 12.Chief Joseph’s Story (1879) In this very famous and oft-quoted statement, Chief Joseph eloquently made his case for an end to war between whites and the Nez Perces tribe and captured the human drama of Indian removal. 13.The Indians Must Be Assimilated Assimilation of Native Americans into the “civilization” established by Euro- Americans had long been an objective of Presidents and lawmakers. As Chester Arthur suggested, assimilation was a one-way street; Native Americans were expected to conform to white views of civilization in return for the protection of the law and the economic opportunity of landholding. The Dawes Severalty Act implemented one step of the assimilation plan outlined by President Arthur. Proponents of the act heralded it as a progressive step in Indian-white relations, but within a short period, much of the reservation land passed into the hands of white settlers and speculators. 14.Life on the Prairie Farms (1893) E.V. Smalley painted a bleak picture of life on the Great Plains in his 1893 article in the Atlantic Monthly. The Homestead Act, the natural landscape, home life, ethnic differences, and the lack of social opportunities left most prairie farmers isolated from the benefits of “civilization” in Smalley’s view—a sharp contrast to the mythical American farm family life. 15.The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893) Frederick Jackson Turner’s paper, read before the American Historical Association at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, offered a reconceptualization of American history that focused on American exceptionalism. The frontier, in Turner’s view, represented possibility, not limits. 16.An American Woman Travels West (1886) The completion of the transcontinental rail lines touched off a boom in travel to, from, and through the West. In this account, Sue Sanders describers her trip from the Utah line to Reno, Nevada, capturing the patriotic fervor that accompanied the endeavor, her encounters with Native Americans, and her impressions of the western landscape. Chapter 2: Industrialization and its Discontents 17. The Gospel of Wealth (1889) Like many other Progressives, Andrew Carnegie believed that men should live to promote the betterment of mankind. His Gospel of Wealth taught that the rich were mere trustees of their money and must use it to the service of others. He went so far as to suggest that the man who died rich, died disgraced. 18. Mark Twain Satirizes the Battle Hymn of the Republic (1900) As the nineteenth century gave way to the twentieth, American expansionary impulses moved beyond the continental US, and the excesses of the “Gilded Age” (a phrase Twain helped coin) touched off a wave of reform efforts that would so define the early 20 century that it would be remembered as the “Progressive Era.” Invoking the memory of the Civil War, Mark Twain reworked the “Battle Hymn of the Republic” in his classic satirical style to bette

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Chapter 5.3, Problem 16E is Solved
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Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073401331. This full solution covers the following key subjects: concentration, spectrophotometer, sample, ppm, its. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 153 chapters, and 2440 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 16E from chapter: 5.3 was answered by , our top Statistics solution expert on 06/28/17, 11:15AM. The answer to “?The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in a gas sample is measured by a spectrophotometer and found to be 85 ppm. Through long experience with this instrument, it is believed that its measurements are unbiased and normally distributed, with an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 8 ppm. Find a 95% confidence interval for the concentration of CO in this sample.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 59 words. Since the solution to 16E from 5.3 chapter was answered, more than 540 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists , edition: 4.

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The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in a gas sample