Organ donors A recent opinion poll showed that about 75% of Americans would donate their organs upon death. Suppose that this is exactly true. Choosing an American at random then has probability 0.75 of getting one who would donate his or her organs. If we interview Americans separately, we can assume that their responses are independent. We want to know the probability that a simple random sample of 100 Americans will contain at least 80 who would donate their organs. Explain carefully how to do this simulation and simulate one repetition of the poll using your calculator or Table B. How many of the 100 would donate their organs? Explain how you would estimate the probability by simulating many repetitions.
Topic 10B: Depressive Disorders and Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychiatric Disorders Depressive Disorders Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Epidemiology Affects more women (25%) than men (10%) Risk factors include: o Being female o Family history o Having had a previous episode (50% of having a second episode) Once you’ve had 3 episodes, you have a 90% chance. DSMV Diagnosis: 59 symptoms, and 1 should be * Depressed mood o I feel sad, I cry most of the day for at least 2 weeks Lack of interest o In usual activities, you don’t feel like doing it Feeling guilty/ worthless Psychomotor retardation/ agitation o Moving slowly, talking and thinking slowly. Other people see it as well. Sleep problems o Too much sleep o Wake up frequently o Difficulty getting to sleep but when they do, they sleep too much Concentration problems o Find college really difficult, and too hard o Hard to focus, take notes, and study Suicidal thoughts o Want to kill themselves Appetite increase/ decrease o Most severely depressed people decrease/ lose weight Energy problems o Don’t want to do things because it takes too much energy MUST HAVE THESE SYMPTOMS FOR MORE THAN 2 WEEKS MDD VS. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) MDD is episodic PDD is chronic o Ex. Eeyore (Winnie the Pooh) Always in a negative mood! Other possible characteristics: Seasonal course: Happens in places where there is not any sun. Sunlight helps them! If you have work in dark areas or no windows. A light box can help them. Postpartum depression o A month or more after giving birth Psychotic depression o Lost touch with reality o Holding beliefs that are not true o Hallucinations How do we treat MDD Cognitivebehavioral therapy! Theoretical model Thoughts Emotions and Behaviors Identifying and challenging maladaptive thoughts Increasing pleasant activities Brief psychodynamic therapy CBT Interpersonal therapyevaluating your relationships There is a negative use of self, others, world, and the future. Example: I’m worthless Feelings of depression/ Behave depressed We fix the thoughts so that the outcomes changes Film: What CBT Therapy looks like Schizophrenia (genet Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders: Schizophrenia Primary characteristics: o Problems in cognitions o Personality disintegration o Social withdrawal Epidemiology: Occurs in 1% of the population Occurs equally in men and women Hallmark Symptoms Delusions: False personal beliefs Examples: o Andrea Yates: arrested for drowning her five children, believed that Satan had taken over her body, and soul and was eyeing her children’s souls next o Man killed a Tustin bookkeepers because he believed she was not paying him for janitorial work o Seven year old Los Angeles girls believes that a rat and car are urging her to do “bad thing” o Florida man believes he communicates with celebrities via telepathy o Oregon woman believed that medical mogul Ted Tuner intend to hive her the house of her neighbors o Man believed that people were planting devices underneath his house o A woman believes that people were plotting a plan to kill and eliminate her Many Types of Delusions Grandeur (You believe that you have special powers/ status… But you do not know) Control (Control of you by other people/ Other people are controlling you) Persecution (Agitate/ People are trying to drive me crazy, trying to steal from me, and trying to ruin my life) Reference (“Things are referring to you, that aren’t!” Example: You’re watching a television newscast, someone turns up and they say that people can now adopt dogs for $20’s. The delusional person will believe that this podcast will only be directed towards you, and NOT anybody else. You, personally.) Capgras’ syndrome (The belief in existence of identical twin doubles, that either coexist with you/ replace people around you.) Too much dopamine: Schizophrenia Too little dopamine: Parkinson’s Hallucinations: Perceptions that are not attributable to environmental stimuli Can involve any of the five senses o Auditory (Hearing) o Olfactory (Smelling) o Gustatory (Taste) o Visual (Seeing) o Tactile (Touch. Ex. Bugs crawling in skin…) Disorganized Speech Loose associations: Continual shifting of thoughts without any logical connections between them Tangetiality: Drifting off a topic of conversations without returning to one’s original point Word Salad: Words juxtaposed in illogical ways Neologisms: New words formed by combines words in common usage o Field + Cow = Fieldcow Clang associations: Associating words according to rhyme rather than meaning Disorganized behavior (Doesn’t make sense/ Stereotypical “crazy” behavior) OR catatonic behavior (Not talking, not responding, not moving) Negative symptoms: o Flat affect: Not happy, not sad, just “not there” o Avolition: Lack of motivation o Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure How do we treat this Neuroleptic medication! Dopamine hypothesis: Schizophrenia = A “too much DA” problem Neuroleptic medications block DA receptors in neurons Symptoms: Large involuntary muscle movements “dyskinesia”, pill roller, tongue/denture movement