(II) A stoppered test tube traps 25.0 cm3 of air at a pressureof 1.00 atm and temperature of 18C. The cylindrically shapedstopper at the test tubes mouth has a diameter of 1.50 cm andwill pop off the test tube if a net upward force of 10.0 N isapplied to it. To what temperature would one have to heat thetrapped air in order to pop off the stopper? Assume the airsurrounding the test tube is always at a pressure of 1.00 atm.
PSY 101 Study Guide 3 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH Mary Ainsworth Researcher o ttachment Development Piaget Researcher fognitive Development Erikson Researcher oersonality Development Marcia Researcher oIdentity Development KublerRoss Researcher oStages of Grief Kohlberg Researcher ooral Development Research methods in developmental (2) 1. Prenatal development 2. Infant development Prenatal development the development of the zygote to birth. (0birth) 1. Germinal Stage: 02 weeks Zygote 2. Embryonic Stage: 28 weeks Embryo 3. Fetal Stage: 8birth Fetus Teratogens and examples Importance of contact/touch An Increase 50% survival Infant attachment styles (3) 1. Secure: a. Most trust b. Adventurous c. Cry if caretaker leave 2. Anxiousambivalent: a. Over dependence b. A little longer to play c. Harder to be comforted 3. Avoidant: a. Most distrust b. overindependence c. play fastest d. Don’t look around if caretaker leave US vs Germany vs Japan infant attachments Infant temperament styles (3) 1. Secure 2. Fear 3. Defensiveness Dendritic spread & pruning in infant brain “Planet Opposite” study Cognitive development stages (4) 1. Sensorimotor stage (02 yr.) a. object permanence when the object is out of sight, it is gone b. scale error cannot tell the difference in size. 2. Preoperational stage (27 yr.) a. Irreversibility concentrate one thing at a time b. Egocentrism see thing from oneself pointofview 3. Concrete operations stage (711 yr.) a. Conservation the ability to see that distribution is different and size does not change b. Hierarchical classification 4. Formal operations stage (11adolescence) a. Abstract thinking b. Systematic thinking and logic Psychosocial development stages (8) 1. Trust vs Mistrust (1st year) 2. Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt (23 yr.) a. “Can I do it by myself” 3. Initiative vs Guilt (46 yr.) a. “Am I good or bad” 4. Industry vs Inferiority (6puberty) a. “Am I a competent or worthless” 5. Identity vs Confusion (adolescence) a. “Who am I” 6. Intimacy vs Isolation (early adult) a. “Am I capable of meaningful relationship” 7. Generativity vs Self Absorption (mid adult) a. “Will I produce something valuable” 8. Integrity vs Despair (late adult) a. “Have I live a full life” Identity development statuses (4) 1. Identity Diffusion No crisis or commitment 2. Identity Moratorium No crisis, but have commitment 3. Identity foreclosure Have crisis, but no commitment 4. Identity Achievement Have crisis and commitment Moral development, 3 levels, 6 orientations 1. Preconventional Level a. Punishment orientation Determination through the thought of punishments b. Naïve reward orientation Determination through rewards 2. Conventional Level a. Good boy/girl orientation Determination through approval b. Authority orientation Determination through society’s rule 3. Postconventional Level a. Social Contract orientation Determination through justice b. Individual principles & conscience orientation Determination through abstract principles equity and justice Age conscience development begins about age 9 Highlights of adolescence ● Identity Crisis ● Stress ● Suicide attempts Adolescent brain structure & emotion Highlights of early adulthood ● Marriage is now in late 20searly 30s ● Increase in alternative lifestyles ● Four parenting styles ● These style will correlates with children Highlights of middle adulthood ● Marital happiness ○ Kids = happiness ■ Men = Yes ■ Women = No ● Midlife crisis vs reflection ● Empty nest syndrome vs adjustment Highlights of later adulthood ● Active neurons ○ Minor decline ● Sensory sensitivity ○ Gradual decline easily corrected ● Fluid intelligence; Crystallized intelligence ○ Decrease fluid ○ Flexibility increase ● Life satisfaction ● Interaction of physical, cognitive, and social health Parenting styles (4) 1. Authoritarian Excessive control, not responsive 2. Indulgentpermissive little control, high responsive 3. Indifferentuninvolved no control, not responsive 4. Authoritative high control, high responsive Island of Okinawa Stages of grieving & dying 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance Two more stages added later 1. Shock testing 2. Sticking , cycling stuck at one phase or goes through phases, but repeat prior stage. Progression PERSONALITY PSYCH Freud Study inPsychanalytic Theory Jung Study inAnalytic psychology Adler Study iIndividual psychology Skinner Study iOperant Conditioning by rewards and punishment Bandura Study inocial Learning Theory by observations Rogers Study inPersonCentered Theory Maslow Study in Self Actualization Theory Eyscenk Study inNP Theory Sam Gosling Study inocial Perception and CrossSpecies Personality Durable and pervasive way of life Trait A way of describing a being Personality or social situation MMPI clinical usage 16 PF Questionnaire personality factor usage The NEO Personality Inventory normal life usage Rorschach test looking for recurring themes The TAT ● For small group only ● For people who enjoys writing Self report vs projective tests ● Self report fill out survey or questionnaire with or without a investigator ● projective tests designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli to find hidden emotions and internal conflicts Psychobiography The analysis of historically significant lives through the use of psychological theory and research Types A, B and D and cardiovascular risk ● Type A Competitive, time urgent, hostile, aggressive ● Type B Relaxed, One thing at a time, express feeling ● Type D Have a negative outlook on live, suppress emotion ○ High risk of cardiovascular risk Psychodynamic perspectives ● Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory ● Jung’s Analytic psychology ● Adler’s Individual Psychology Psychoanalytic theory Focus: Unconscious 3 components of personality 1. Id Desire, Pleasure 2. Superego Conscience only 3. Ego reality mediator between id and superego 3 levels of awareness 1. Conscious Limited thought 2. Preconscious trigger answer (able to know the answer without thinking) 3. Unconscious imply memory, basically everything else The iceberg metaphor Defense mechanisms 1. Repression want to forget 2. Projection portray what you feel 3. Displacement taking frustration on other living organism 4. Reaction formation reaction in a different (opposite) manner 5. Regression Regression back to childlike behavior 6. Rationalization Think something is rational 7. Identification Identify yourself as part of something else because it makes you feel important The formative years the childhood years Psychosexual stages Know age range/body part focus/task/any special characteristic(s) on slide/ possible fixations of each stage 1. Oral Stage a. 01 yr. b. Explore everything with the mouth c. Breast feeding 2. Anal Stage a. 23 yr. b. Obsessed with anything to do with the rectum c. Potty training 3. Phallic Stage a. 45 yr. b. Focus on genital / exploring genital c. Have a “special relationship” with mother or father Oedipus & Electra complex 4. Latency Stage a. 612yr. b. Sexually repressive 5. Genital Stage a. Pubertyon b. Sharing sexuality with others. Dream symbolism sexuality concept Freudian slips No innocent error while talking Analytic Psychology Focus: Spirituality ● Personal Unconscious ○ Gene and other physical thing pass on ○ Memory can be passed on ● Collective Unconscious Unconscious memory that is shared with the same species. (Example: divine being) ● Introversion Prefer your inner life ● Extroversion Prefer the outer life Individual Psychology Focus: Superiority need a driving need to be better than average ● Inferiority complex is a lack of selfworth ● Compensation Covers up, consciously or unconsciously, feelings Behavioral perspectives Focus: Overt behavior Operant Conditioning ● Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Personality development is derived from rewards and punishment Social Learning Theory ● Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Observational Learning Humanistic perspectives Focus: Positive side of Human Nature and Free Will PersonCentered Theory ● Selfconcept ● Incongruency & mental health ● Source of incongruency ○ Lack of unconditional love Self Actualization Theory ● Self actualized personality ● Fulfillment of the person’s goal. Then go and help fulfill other people's goals. Michele’s marshmallow study the study on children about the impulsiveness. The conclusion of this test showed that the children will little control of their impulse to eat the marshmallow have behavioral issue while the more controlled impulse children have a more successful future. Biological perspectives Focus: Genetics and Physiology ENP Theory ● Higherorder (largely inherited traits) ● Extroversion ● Neuroticism ● Psychoticism ● Personality structure: hierarchical ● First to show effects of personality on physiology Evolutionary Theory ● Judgment of other ● Natural Selection favors: ○ Reliability ○ Cooperative ○ Generosity Trait Perspectives ● The Big five The Big Five ● N: Neuroticism ● E: Extraversion ● O: Openness ● A: Agreeableness How nice somebody is ● C: Conscientiousness detailed productive carful Neurotransmitters and neuroticism Health/longevity and personality Obesity and personality