A scuba tank has a volume of 3100 cm3. For very deep dives,the tank is filled with 50% (by volume) pure oxygen and50% pure helium, (a) How many molecules are there ofeach type in the tank if it is filled at 20C to a gauge pressureof 12 atm? (b) What is the ratio of the average kineticenergies of the two types of molecule? (c) What is the ratioof the rms speeds of the two types of molecule?
ANSC 1000 Midterm BEEF British Breeds : Angus, Red Angus, Hereford Origin: British Isles Characteristics: 1. Mature and fatten at lighter market weights (1000-1150lb) 2. Grow slower and have smaller mature size 3. Less muscular 4. More fertile 5. Less calving Difﬁculty 6. Live and reproduce longer Used as maternal breeds in crossbreeding programs Angus Color: Black Polled (some scurs) Scurs: small growths of hornlike tissue attached to the skin of polled or dehorned animals Mature Size: 1150-1250lb Origin: Scotland Most registered breed Red Angus Color: Red Polled Mature Size: 1100lb Origin: USA Characteristics: Same as Angus but red Hereford Color: Red body, white extremities Both horned and polled Mature size: 1150lb Origin: England Continental Exotic: Charolais, Simmental, Limousin, Gelbvieh Origin: Continental Europe Characteristics: 1. Larger mature size (1200-1400lb) 2. Later-maturing 3. Heavier-muscled; higher yielding carcasses 4. Less fertile 5. Increased calving problems 6. Less marbling —> lower quality grade Normally used as sire breeds in crossbreeding Charolais Color: shades of white Both horned and polled Mature size: 1550lb Origin: France One of the ﬁrst ‘exotic’ breeds introduced to the US Simmental Color: Black, yellow to red and white Predominantly horned, some polled Mature size: 1500lb Origin: Switzerland Limousin Color: Golden red to light yellow Both horned and polled Mature Size: 1300lb Origin: France Gelbvieh Color: black; traditionally yellow to golden red Both horned and polled Mature size: 1300lb Origin: Austria and Bavarian region of Western Germany Brahman and Crosses: Brahman, Santa Gertrudis, Brangus Desirable Characteristics: 1. Heat tolerance (sweat glands) 2. Parasite tolerance 3. Crosses with British/Exotics produce high heterosis Undesirable Characteristics: 1. Nervous disposition 2. Pendulous sheath 3. Meat is tough dark cutters: agitated during slaughter more connective tissue in the muscle 4. Not adaptable to cold climates Brahman Color: White & gray predominant but various colors Horned Origin: India Santa Gertrudis Color: red Both horned and polled Origin: King Ranch in Texas 5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman Mature size: 1450lb First beef breed from the US Brangus Color: Black Polled (Some horned) Origin: USA 5/8 Angus and 3/8 Brahman Mature Size: 1300lb Judging Market Steers (and Heifers) 1. Desirable Market Weight (1100-1250lb) 2. Muscling (amount, thickness, and uniformity of thickness) 3. Trimness (lack of excess fat, yield grade) 4. Volume and capacity (width, length, depth) 5. Skeletal design (shoulder, top, hip) 6. Soundness and movement Judging Breeding Stock (Bulls and Heifers) 1. Size (frame size and length of body) 2. Volume and capacity (spring-of-rib, depth, broodiness) 3. Skeletal design (straight lines, shoulder, top, hip) 4. Soundness and movement 5. Reproductive soundness (testicular/udder development) Identiﬁcation visual id pitfalls: human recording errors and time delay electronic id (left ear) coordinates source id, animal movement & pathogen tracking (BSE/FMD) market pays premium for traceability allows backtracking for quality concerns evacuation and relocation (natural disasters) records performance data for herd automatically tattoo (herd number inside ear in case tags rip out) branding (freeze brand or hot brand to substantiate ownership) Beef Feet and Leg Structure SWINE Yorkshire (Maternal Breed) Color: White (other colored hair merits disqualiﬁcation) Ears: erect Origin: England Desirable Traits: maternal traits (farrow large litters, excellent mothering and milking ability) long-bodied growth rates aggressiveness (libido) of boars Undesirable Traits: carcass characteristics (excessive fat & light muscling) less hardy most recorded breed in US; primarily considered a maternal breed in crossbreeding Duroc (Sire Breed) Color: solid golden to deep brick red Ears: Drooped Origin: United States (New England Area) Desirable Traits: excellent growth rates and feed efﬁciencies vigorous Undesirable Traits: poor mothers — wean small litters problems with soundness boars lack libido enjoy widespread popularity; second most recorded breed in US Hampshire (Sire Breed) Color: black and white belt entirely encircling body Ears: erect Origin: Southern England Desirable Traits: excellent carcass traits (meaty, muscular) and soundness Undesirable Traits: boars lack libido (worst of all breeds) small litters growth rate third most recorded breed; research indicated use as a maternal breed promising Landrace (Maternal Breed) Color: white — black in hair coat merits disqualiﬁcation Ears: large, long, drooped Origin: Denmark Desirable Traits: maternal characteristics, heavy milkers long-bodied soundness aggressiveness (libido) of boars Undesirable Traits: carcass lack overall meatiness and muscling fragile stress susceptible fourth most recorded breed in the US; several varieties present; average growth rates Spotted (Sire Breed) Color: black and white spotted with one dominating Ears: drooped Origin: United States Desirable Traits: good growth rate and feed efﬁciency scale, size, substance of bone, long-bodied hardy to variety of conditions aggressiveness (libido) of boars Undesirable Traits: maternal characteristics carcass characteristics Berkshire (Sire Breed) Color: black with six white points — feet, nose, tail Ears: erect Origin: England Desirable Traits: soundness meat quality (marbling, color, tenderness) Undesirable Traits: short-bodied poor maternal characteristics (mothering and milking ability; small litters) poor growth rate and feed efﬁciency popular in Japan due to meat quality; oldest lineage of all swine breeds Chester White (Maternal Breed) Color: white — other color hair merits disqualiﬁcation Ears: drooped Origin: United States Desirable Traits: maternal characteristics (large litters, milk well, excellent mothers) aggressive boars muscular carcasses Undesirable Traits: short-bodied slow growing (ADG low) Poland China (Sire Breed) Color: black with white markings on face, legs, and tail Ears: drooped Origin: United States Desirable Traits: carcass characteristics; large loin Undesirable Traits: slow growth rate and below average feed efﬁciency short-bodied poor maternal characteristics popularity declining; oldest US developed breed Judging Market Hogs (Barrows and Gilts) 1. Desirable market weight (250-290lb) 2. Leanness (lack of excess fat, increased percent muscle) 3. Muscling 4. Growth Rate (ADG or days to 250lb) 5. Skeletal design and soundness (topline, hip, shoulder, feet, legs) Judging Breeding Stock (Boars and Gilts) 1. Skeletal design, soundness and movement 2. Reproductive soundness (underline) 3. Individual performance (growth, backfat) or EPD values 4. Parent performance (littler size) or EPD values Ear notching, tattoos, ear tags Swine Feet and Leg Structure SHEEP Sheep Breeds: the ﬁne-wool breeds and the dual-purpose breeds, which are found mainly in the in the range-ﬂock regions of the US produce about 10-14+ lb. wool per year also carpet wool breeds (very coarse) and hair-sheep breeds (generally not in US) most popular range ﬂock breeds: Rambouillet, Columbia, Targhee most popular farm ﬂock breeds: Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire most sheep are seasonal breeders, normal breeding season ~August to early winter breeds that can be induced out of season: Rambouillet, Dorset, Polypay Fine-Wool Breeds: Rambouillet, Merinos, Debouillet hardy, gregarious, long-lived, well-suited to range management noted for their ﬁne ﬂeece, but have been generally lacking in mutton type modern breeding improved mutton conformation Rambouillet (most popular breed of sheep in the US) cream to white in color; wool on legs rams usually horned and large (300lb.) have a problem with closed faces strong points: strong ﬂocking instinct, hardy, longevity weak points: poor mutton type, slow maturing, medium staple length (2-4 in.) Merino (American and Delaine, very ﬁne and soft wool) cream color both polled and horned horns are present in both sexes and spiral around close to the head most popular breed in the world originated from Spain Medium-Wool: Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire, Finnsheep, Polypay, Southdown, Cheviot bred for meat (lamb/mutton) and have good carcass conformation exception: ﬁnnsheep good fertility, poor carcass conformation generally have light ﬂeeces, producing 5-8lb of wool/year wool is more coarse than ﬁne-wool breeds, but much ﬁner than long-wool breeds ﬂocking instincts not as strong; tend to spread out over a pasture while grazing these breeds have been popular in the farm-ﬂock regions of the United States Suffolk black head and legs free from wool largest sized breed in US (Rams 300-400lb) most popular purchased breed in US widely used as terminal sire in market lamb production form: excellent mutton type; high mutability carcass wool: medium, light ﬂeece (4-8lb), black ﬁbers ewes are proliﬁc and give a lot of milk less longevity, especially in harsh environments Dorset white color, wool on legs horned or polled; horn curl resembles Rambouillet medium size (rams 200-250lb) form: moderately low-set; good mutton type wool: medium; not very dense; medium staple length; no black ﬁbers heavy milk production highly fertile; more than one lamb crop per year Hampshire open face — usually rich brown to black; black legs some wool on head and legs large (Rams 250-350lb) widely used as terminal sire in market lamb production strong and weak points very similar to Suffolk; more hardy and produce more wool (6-10lb), but growth rates are less Finnsheep from Finland, 1968 white are most common, some black; no wool on face and legs small to medium size, medium wool, medium staple length (3-5in) poor carcass conformation ﬁne-boned, very proliﬁc (average 2-4 lambs each lambing) early puberty, early lambing Polypay developed by the US Sheep Experiment Station in 1970’s in Dubois, ID 4 breed cross, Targhee X Dorset & Rambouillet X Finnsheep medium-sized, white-faced, and proliﬁc superior in lamb production and carcass quality selection pressure for out-of-season mating and proliﬁcacy ewes are good mothers, produce lambs with good growth and carcass quality Southdown white; light brown face and legs; wool extends below eyes extremely compact — excellent carcass quality early market maturity excellent for hot-house lamb production (meat from a young lamb which has been entirely milk-fed; known for tenderness and delicate ﬂavor) one of the oldest sheep breeds Cheviot clean, alert appearance — ‘decorative’ white, open face, erect ears, clean head and legs small, low-set, thick, well-proportioned very hardy and able to withstand extreme conditions Long-Wool Breeds: Lincoln, Romney bred chieﬂy for mutton largest of all sheep; slow-maturing ﬂeece is open, coarse and very long have been useful for crossbreeding in the development of new breeds, but the purebreds are not very popular in the US very popular for hand-spinners Dual-Purpose Breeds: Columbia, Targhee, Corriedale called “dual-purpose” because they produce heavy ﬂeeces with medium-to-long staple length, and they produce lambs having good carcass conﬁrmation most descended from long-wool x ﬁne-wool crosses and have medium wool better adapted to western ranges than either parent stock or any medium-wool breeds under range conditions: they produce better market lambs and heavier ﬂeeces than the Rambouillet; more active and have superior herding tendencies compared with either the long-wool or medium-wool breeds Columbia developed from Lincoln x Rambouillet crosses US Sheep Experiment Station — Dubois, Idaho developed for range conditions one of the larger breeds in US; ﬁrst to originate in US white; open face; wool on legs; medium wool; heavy ﬂeece; medium-long staple length good carcass conformation gregarious; good mothers; hardy Targhee look similar to Columbia Lincoln-Rambouillet ewe mated to Rambouillet ram; some Corriedale breeding (Dubois) ﬁne wool; tighter ﬂeece than Columbia but staple a little shorter medium large hardy; good ﬂocking instincts produce good market lambs Judging Market Lambs (Wethers and Ewes) 1. Desirable market weight (90-120lb) 2. Muscling (amount, thickness and uniformity of thickness) 3. Trimness (lack of excess fat, Yield Grade) 4. Volume and capacity (width, length, depth) 5. Skeletal design (shoulder, top, hip) 6. Soundness and movement (feet and legs — pasterns) Judging Breeding Stock (Rams and Ewes) 1. Size (frame size and length of body) 2. Volume and capacity (spring-of-rib, depth, broodiness) 3. Structural correctness (ie. skeletal design) 4. Muscling (design and amount) 5. Trimness (lack of excess fat) 6. Breed character and ﬂeece quality 7. Soundness and movement 8. Reproductive soundness (testicular/udder development) Identiﬁcation tattooing (mostly purebred ﬂocks) plastic ear tags (like for beef cattle but smaller) — widely used metal ear tags — fairly common paint branding (temporary) ear notching (like for pigs) — not practical Sheep Age by Teeth