It is desired to check the calibration of a scale by weighing a standard 10 g weight 100 times. Let µ be the population mean reading on the scale, so that the scale is in calibration if µ = 10. A test is made of the hypotheses H0:µ = 10 versus H1:µ ≠ 10. Consider three possible conclusions: (i) The scale is in calibration, (ii) The scale is out of calibration, (iii) The scale might be in calibration.
a. Which of the three conclusions is best ifH0 is rejected?
b. Which of the three conclusions is best if H0 is not rejected?
c. Is it possible to perform a hypothesis test in a way that makes it possible to demonstrate conclusively that the scale is in calibration? Explain.
Kyla Brinkley JOUR 3190 Spring 2015 Chapter 11 Notes Social Media and Journalism I. Introduction II. Changing Journalism’s Formula a. Digital publishing changed the underpinnings of journalism b. Social media has changed its practice c. Originally journalism had a lot of flaws because of interviewed people having faulty memories, things are embellished, quotes may be altered d. Telephone made getting first word out easier and quicker e. Broadcasting and 24-hour cable news channels sped up the news cycle further f. With social media, the journalist is increasingly not the first witness to history g. Blogger or tweeter is just as likely to be an accidental witness and the world’s first portal to what is happening in unpolished prose and graphics h. Videos and photos captured by eyewitnesses are as likely to be shared on Facebook or YouTube as to be on the evening news i. 7 stages of how news develops on social media i. excitement over potentially being first to report big news ii. uncertainty over whether the early word is legitimate iii. searching for validation (turn to traditional media) iv. confirmation v. jokes, profits, and platitudes (fake sites trying to profit from the event proliferate) vi. action. People seek more info and begin to act vii. real analysis, usually in longer-form media III. The Technology is New, “Social” is Not a. Technology has enabled instant sharing and has turned journalism into a conversation, not one-way delivery b. But newspapers were social in journalism’s early days c. Breaking news was posted in storefront windows of newspaper buildings for people to gather, read, discuss d. Newsboys shouted the headlines on street corners to attract a crowd, sell papers, and start conversations e. TV and the suburbs changed things. TV production equipment was hard to set up and move f. With suburban growth media started leaving downtown but it was then hard to cover neighborhoods in personal way that encouraged social interaction g. Lucrative flow of advertising dollars allowed news organizations to create “firewalls” between those who reported the news, the editorial side, and those who brought in revenue, the business side h. Journalists thought they were safely isolated to focus on “just the news” but with emergence of digital technologies in the 1990s, they realized how estranged their audiences had become i. Many news orgs were slow to adopt social media tools IV. Defining Social Media a. Common aspects i. Ability to easily share content with individuals & networks ii. Ability to receive feedback iii. On open look that allows others to interact with that content and feedback b. Additional properties of social network i. Ability to create, upload, or remix content that can then be shared ii. Ability to easily manage whom you connect with, the terms on which you engage with them, and the personal information you reveal to them iii. Ability of others to take the shared content, including any feedback, and send it elsewhere on the network c. Evolution of Social Media i. Email 1. Easy to share content by forwarding a link, cut pasting, or attaching a copy, and those receiving it could send it to their contacts 2. Management of connections was hard ii. Discussion boards or forums 1. Allow people to post their views on a topic and respond to others 2. Earliest interactive areas online 3. Usenet, later became part of Google 4. Remain popular as technical support sites 5. News organizations had them but most shut down because they get a lot of off topic/profane comments iii. Blogs 1. Ability to create/publish content for anyone to see/solicit comments and respond 2. Lack ability to control one’s connections and can’t easily share content across other networks iv. Crowd sourced Editing 1. Digg, Reddit, StumbleUpon 2. Share online items and let community decide what is relevant 3. Not networks but contain communities v. Document, File, Video Sharing 1. Scribd, SlideShare, Flickr, Photobucket 2. Dedicated to allowing easy sharing of documents/graphic presentations/photos 3. Video sharing: YouTube, Vimeo, Blip.tv 4. You have to link to share on other sites though vi. Geolocative 1. FourSquare, Gowalla 2. Sharing your location 3. Being built into other services, like social networks vii. Social Networks 1. Facebook a. Facilitates the “social” aspects of other media channels and adds utility by consolidating creation, sharing, and feedback tools so you can manage members of your social network b. (correct term is “social graph”)—describes interrelationships c. each person is a bridge to others: “friend of a friend” 2. Twitter a. Texting led to sites allowing the sharing of messages b. Twitter added social networking attributes to texting 3. Journalists must recognize and capitalize on the larger issues, opportunities, and challenge social media represents 4. LinkedIn V. Tactical vs. Strategic Thinking a. To effectively use social media, you must determine what you are trying to accomplish and how you will get there b. Social media has tactical and strategic aspects c. If you are thinking tactically, you are thinking how to get your material in front of others i. Understanding how your audience receives information d. Tactical Aspects i. Many newsrooms now have a Facebook page, Twitter feed, or both ii. Also common to have an email link/Facebook/Twitter button iii. Pushing out news is now handled by automation iv. Does your audience use Facebook v. However, digging through a persons Facebook profile to put it in the news (like if they robbed someone) raises ethical questions vi. Social media also aides in locating sources e. Strategic Aspects i. Strategic side required committing to a long term engagement with your audience, which takes planning and resources ii. 3 areas of engagement for journalists in social networks 1. outreach 2. conversation 3. collaboration iii. social media conversations are critical to satisfying customers and improving their reputations iv. journalism has become a service rather than a product v. Facebook is more personal because requires real identities f. Managing Social Media i. Using email notifications can help ii. But larger orgs need someone to monitor social media channels iii. Remember that the “why” for doing something need not be simply sales/profit iv. Gaining experience in an area and experimenting are also good reasons v. Recent years have seen the emergence of jobs like “social media manager” VI. Social Media Tools and Practices a. Social media apps are constantly being developed b. Blogging i. Journalists still find it useful as a personal publishing platform ii. 3 key concepts 1. regularity 2. linking 3. commenting iii. advancing from older TypePad, Blogger, WordPress to Posterous and Tumblr c. Texting/Twitter i. Texting is more point to point ii. Twitter helps practice to express yourself in shorter phrases iii. An effective message is more than a headline. Must allow user to take action or decide whether to seek more details iv. Some websites use something similar to a tweet or text message atop a story to summarize it for scanners v. Twitter’s power over texting comes from: 1. Ability to retweet. Social networking dimension 2. Ability to reply to others tweets publicly to create convo thread 3. Ability to follow and be followed 4. Ability to use hashtags vi. TweetDeck, HootSuite, to organize tweets and schedule tweeting vii. Social Networks 1. Each network has its own protocols, tools, and functions 2. Don’t bombard friends with messages 3. Be careful when tagging people 4. Use first-person voice viii. Other Tools 1. Class of tools is emerging that allows journalists to pull together posts from across the internet’s social networks and social media sites to create a seamless story thread 2. Storify.com 3. But, journalism isn’t practiced just by sitting at a computer and curating the world’s social media streams VII. Ethics a. New technology presents new challenges and gives old problems new dimensions b. Currently journalists treat online profiles like yearbook photos, using the information available, but this may not be considered ethical in the future i. But there is much more information available online c. Some think that posts intended for a limited circle should remain private d. Concepts of privacy are changing and social media will continue to press this issue e. Legal system is struggling with issue of jurors tweeting during trials f. Hard to moderate online communities