Integrated circuits consist of electric channels that are etched onto silicon wafers. A certain proportion of circuits are defective because of “undercutting,” which occurs when too much material is etched away so that the channels, which consist of the unetched portions of the wafers, are too narrow. A redesigned process, involving lower pressure in the etching chamber, is being investigated. The goal is to reduce the rate of undercutting to less than 5%. Out of the first 1000 circuits manufactured by the new process, only 35 show evidence of undercutting. Can you conclude that the goal has been met?

9/7: Chapter 2 (Continued) 1. Argument = Statement of the form (P ^ P ^1… P 2 → q, khere (P ^ P ^ … 1 2 P ) is the premises, and Q is the conclusion k P1 P2 ... Pk ∴ q i. ∴ = Therefore 2. Famous Arguments a. Modus Ponens = “Method of Affirming” (p→q) ^ p → q p→q P 1 p→q p P 2 p ∴ q Conclusion = q i. Valid because p → q ≡ p → q b. Modus Tollens = “Method of Denying” j. p→q k.