A new process for producing a type of novolac resin is supposed to have a mean cycle time of 3.5 hours per batch. Six batches are produced, and their cycle times, in hours, were
Can you conclude that the mean cycle time is greater than 3.5 hours?
GEOL 1330 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE -Relative Dating - Know Stenos 3 laws Steno's Laws -Top Hat Question: - In what orientation are sedimentary layers originally deposited -Answer: Horizontal -Principle of Original Horizontality - layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity -Folding or tilting occurs after rocks are deposited -Top Hat Question: -What is the oldest sedimentary layer -Answer: The bottom most layer -Principle of Super Position -Oldest layer is the bottommost layer and the top layer is the youngest -Top Hat Question: -What did the Grand Canyon look like before the Colorado River carved it -Answer: Rocks on one canyon wall were connected to the exact same rocks on the other side -Principle of Lateral Continuity -layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous. -Cross cutting relationships Cross-Cutting Relationships -Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships -Rocks that do the "cutting" are younger than those being cut -Principle of Inclusion -Inclusions are older than rocks they are included in. -Ex: Rocks in the ceiling of a magma chamber fall into magma, the magma cools. The original rock is older than the cooled magma -Need to know 3 types of unconformities, angular unconformity, disconformity, and non-conformity Unconformities -An erosional surface -Portions of the rock record were eroded away -Usually indicated by a wavy line -period of erosion, called unconformity -Disconformity: Gap in the rock record, represents period of non- deposition and erosion -Nonconformity: Period of uplift and erosion that exposes deep rock at the surface -Angular Unconformity: Horizontal layers are deposited directly on top of tilted layers -There will be at least one diagram where you will need to know what happened first. Refer to your in class assignment. -Absolute dating - what is an isotope (diff number neutrons than protons) -What is half life -Types of rocks that can be dated radioactively Radioactivity and Isotopes -Radioactivity - The spontaneous decay of unstable elements to a stable form -Isotope - Atom with a different number of neutrons -Parent - Unstable radioactive isotope -Daughter - Stable isotope resulting from the decay of the parent -During radioactive decay atoms can lose protons neutrons or electrons, or they can gain electrons -Half-Life - Time it takes for half the unstable (radioactive) parent atoms to decay to stable daughter atoms (non-radioactive) -Collect a rock and what to know its age, you measure: -Number of Parent Atoms present -Number of Daughter Atoms present -You collect 1000 parent atoms and 7000 daughter atoms -(How many Parents were in this rock when it first formed) -8000 original parent atoms -Half-life 1: 4000 parents and 4000 daughters -Half-life 2: 2000 parents and 6000 daughters -Half-life 3: 1000 parents and 7000 daughters -Radiometric dating of minerals provides an age for the moment of crystallization (igneous rocks) or metamorphism (metamorphic rocks) -When used in sediments: Does Not provide an age for deposition of the sediments because depositional age of sediments can only be determined from cross cutting relationships -Wilson Cycle (No need to name stages, just know what the cycle is - opening and closing of an ocean basin /formation or destruction of ocean basin) The Wilson Cycle -The Wilson Cycle: Formation and destruction of Ocean Basins -Formation Stages- -Embryonic Stage: Volcanic and non-marine sediments are deposited in rift valleys -As the crust is pulled apart, large slabs of rock sink, creating a valley. (Divergent plate boundary) -Immature Stage: Continued rifting creates oceanic crust. Cooling and subsidence of rifted margin allows sediments to be deposited -Further spreading creates a narrow sea (I.e. red sea) -Mature Stage: Continental margin continues to grow supplied from erosion of the continent -Eventually, an expansive ocean basin and ridge system are created -Destruction Stages- -Declining Stage: Pacific Ocean, the ocean has reached its maximum size and begins shrinking -Remnant Stage: Mediterranean Sea, The ocean is all but closed and is a fraction of its former size -Suture Stage: Himalayan Mountains, The ocean is no longer there and the plates continue to collide creating a mountain range -Persian Gulf = Remnant portion closed by the convergence between Arabian plate and Asia -Continuous subduction of oceanic lithosphere results in the development of thin continental crust through partial melting -Know different seismic wave (surface wave, s wave, p wave) -Speed, amplitude, mediums traveled through, damage Waves -Seismology is the study of earthquake waves -These waves are recorded by seismographs -Types of seismic waves -Surface waves -Travel along the outer part of Earth -Cause the greatest destruction -slowest speed, highest amplitude, longest period, travels through solids and liquids -P-Waves (primary) -Push-Pull (Compress and expand motion) -Travel through solids, liquids, and gases -fastest speed, lowest amplitude, shortest period -S-Waves (secondary) -Shaking motion at right angles to their direction of travel -Only travels through solids -intermediate speed, amplitude, and period -Surface waves -Have a combination of up and down and side to side movement -P-waves - Particle motion consists of alternating compression and dilation. Particle motion is parallel to the direction of propagation (longitudinal). -S-waves - Particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (transverse). Transverse particle motion shown here is vertical but can be in any direction -New evidence for plate tectonics -reversing of mag field, how we know that from minerals cooling and align with magnetic field. Like a tape recorder -Tsunamis Tsunami- a series of large waves generated by an abrupt movement on the ocean floor that can result from an earthquake, an underwater landslide, a volcanic eruption or - very rarely - a large meteorite strike. However, powerful undersea earthquakes are responsible for most tsunamis, generally caused by earthquakes in subduction zones -How to monitor earthquakes, how many monitors Measured by seismographs, seismographs measure the force and length of earthquakes. Generally, 3 monitors are used in order to triangulate an area. -Most active earthquakes areas in the world Ring of Fire- an area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. -Oklahoma earthquakes Fracking is causing the earthquakes in Oklahoma -What generates earthquakes - movement along faults Earthquakes -Earthquakes are vibrations of the Earth caused by the rapid release of energy, often triggered by movement along faults -Hypocenter (focus) - Exact location of the earthquake within the Earth -Epicenter - Location of the surface directly above the hypocenter -Faults move (slip) in two different ways -1. Fault creep - Slow, gradual displacement (motion) -Small Earthquakes -2. Stick-Slip- Fault stays "locked" storing elastic energy, then suddenly slips, releasing the stored energy -Large Earthquakes -How do continents grow in size Continents grow when new crust attaches at subduction zones, locations where a tectonic plate subducts, or sinks back into the mantle. Often, this new crust arrives as small fragments, called micro-continents, or volcanic island chains. -How was continental crust originally created Subduction and partial melting -Earthquakes magnitudes mag 5 = 10 greater than mag 4 -mag 5 = 100 times greater than mag 3 earthquakes