The article "Measurement of Complex Permittivity of Asphalt Paving Materials" (J. Shang, J. Umana, et al., Journal of Transportation Engineering, 1999:347— 356) compared the dielectric constants between two types of asphalt, HL3 and HL8, commonly used in pavements. For 42 specimens of HL3 asphalt the average dielectric constant was 5.92 with a standard deviation of 0.15, and for 37 specimens of HL8 asphalt the average dielectric constant was 6.05 with a standard deviation of 0.16. Can you conclude that the mean dielectric constant differs between the two types of asphalt?
MSOM 301 Exam #2 Review Guide Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 15 50 Multiple Choice Questions worth one point each (plus an extra credit question worth one point) Review (don’t memorize) all PowerPoint slides on Blackboard and your notes Bring a #2 pencil and a blank Scantron form, and valid GMU ID. I post your grade on Blackboard; I do not return the test. Please note – the number of questions given below for each chapter might not equal to the number of topics since, in a few instances, there is more than one question on a topic. Chapter 9 9 questions Managing diversity/providing opportunities o Managing diversity and inclusion managing a culturally diverse workforce by recognizing the characteristics common to specific group of employees while dealing with such employees as individuals and supporting, nurturing, and utilizing their differences to the organization’s advantage o Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO): “freedom from discrimination on the basis of sex, color, religion, national origin, disability, and age” Diversity management programs value and leverage diversity of all stakeholders—from employees to customers—to achieve competitive advantage Affirmative action special efforts to recruit and hire qualified members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past Hostile work environment occurs when unwelcome sexual conduct “has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with job performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment.” o i.e. persistent or pervasive displays of pornography, lewd or suggestive remarks, and demeaning taunts or jokes Sexual harassment conduct of a sexual nature that has negative consequences for employment Glass ceiling metaphor for an invisible barrier that makes it difficult to rise above a certain level in the organization Employee support groups can provide emotional and career support for members who traditionally haven’t been included in the majority’s informal group o I.e. Apple has a Jewish culture group, gay/lesbian group, African American group, and technical women’s group Anticipated labor force o By 2050: the percent of whites in the labor force will decrease to about 48.2% 1/3 of workers will be of Hispanic origin Hispanics are the largest and fastestgrowing minority percentage of black workers will slightly increase to 12.4% 1 Asians will make up 8.6% of all civilian workers o Phased retirement allow older employees to work fewer hours per week o Retirees return to work because employers don’t want to lose their accumulated knowledge, willingness to work nontraditional shifts, and their reliable work habits Chapter 10 10 questions Strategic leadership is a behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future Sources of power o Legitimate power leader has the right or authority to tell people what to do; employees are obliged to comply with legitimate order o Reward power leader influences others because s/he controls valued rewards; employees comply to receive those rewards o Coercive power leader has control over punishments; employees comply to avoid punishments o Referent power leader has personal characteristics that appeal to others; employees comply because they like the leader, desire for approval, or want to be that leader o expert power leader has certain expertise or knowledge; employees comply because they believe in, can learn from, or otherwise gain from that expertise Traits of effective leaders o Drive set of characteristics that reflect a high level of effort, including high need for achievement, constant striving for improvement, ambition, energy, tenacity (persistence in the face of obstacles), and initiative o Leadership motivation extraversion is consistently related to leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness o Integrity correspondence between actions and words o Selfconfidence ability to overcome obstacles, makes decisions despite uncertainty, and instills confidence in others o Knowledge of the business: leaders should have a high level of knowledge about their industries, companies, and technical matters leaders should also have intelligence to interpret vast quantities of information Behavioral approach leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do that is, what behaviors they exhibit 2 Decision styles o Autocratic leader makes decisions on his/her own and then announces those decisions to the group Results in higher performance than democratic style o Democratic leader solicits input from subordinates Results in the most positive attitudes o Laissezfaire leader essentially makes no decisions o Situational approach leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation Participation in decisionmaking o Autocratic leadership leader makes decisions on his/her own and then announces those decisions to the group o Democratic leadership leader solicits input from subordinates o Laissezfaire leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making University of Michigan studies concluded that taskoriented behavior and relationshiporiented behavior should be exhibited in order to be an effective manager Situational approach leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation Vroom model situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership o Factors used to analyze problems Decision significance Importance of commitment Leader’s expertise Likelihood of commitment Group support for objectives Group expertise Team competence Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness postulated that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation Chapter 11 13 questions Four consequences of behavior o Positive reinforcement applying a consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it o Negative reinforcement removing or withholding an unpleasant consequence o punishment administer an aversive consequence o Extinction withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence. When this occurs, motivation is reduced, and the behavior is extinguished, or eliminated Expectancy theory theory proposes that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome 3 o Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy human needs theory postulating that people are motivated to satisfy unmet needs in a specific order o ERG theory postulates that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously o Existence needs all materials and physiological desires o Relatedness needs relationships with other people and are satisfied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings o Growth needs motivate people to productively or creatively change themselves or their environment Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards o Extrinsic reward reward given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person (i.e. praise, paycheck, bonuses) o Intrinsic reward reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself (i.e. sense of accomplishment) Job enlargement giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom Job enrichment changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying o Hackman and Oldham model of job enrichment 4 Skill variety different job activities involving several skills and talents Task identity completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work Task significance important, positive impact on the lives of others Meaning, responsibility and feedback provide motivation Autonomy independence and discretion in making decisions Feedback information about job performance Growth need strength degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development Herzberg’s twofactor theory describes two factors that affect people’s work motivation and satisfaction o Hygiene factors workplace characteristics (i.e. policies, working conditions, pay, supervision) that could make employees dissatisfied o Motivators nature of the work itself, actual job responsibilities, opportunity for personal growth and recognition, and the feelings of achievement the job provides Empowerment process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization Procedural justice using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible Chapter 12 11 questions Group and team definitions o Group collection of people who interact to undertake a task but do not necessarily perform as a unit or achieve significant performance improvements o Team small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Traditional environment vs New Team environment o Traditional work groups were closely supervised 5 o Today’s teams have more authority and often are selfmanaged o Teams are now used in many more ways than in the past Look at Exhibit 12.1 in the textbook Types of teams o Work teams teams that make or do things, such as manufacture, sell, assemble, or provide service o Project and development teams teams that work on longterm projects but disband once the work is completed o Parallel teams teams that operate separately from regular work structure and exist temporarily o Management teams teams that coordinate and give direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits o Transnational teams work groups composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries o Virtual teams teams that are physically dispersed and communicate electronically more than facetoface Stages of team development o Team leader roles o Task specialist individual who has more advanced jobrelated skills and abilities than other group members possess o Team maintenance specialist individual who develops and maintains team harmony Groupthink occurs when a tightly knit group is very cooperative that agreeing with one another’s opinions and refraining from criticizing others’ ideas become norms Social loafing working less hard and being less productive when in a group Conflict management strategies o Avoidance ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement o Accommodation style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one’s own interests 6 o Compromise style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties’ concerns o Competing style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for the other person’s goals o Collaboration style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize both parties’ satisfaction Chapter 15 8 questions Worldclass organization o Requires applying the best and latest knowledge and ideas and having the ability to operate at the highest standards of any place anywhere o Worldclass companies create highvalue products and earn superior profits over the long run. o They implement more effective and competitive organizational strategies, structures, processes, and management of human resources o The result is an organization capable of competing successfully on a global basis Chief information officer responsibilities include: o Coordinating the technological efforts of the business units, o Representing technology in the top management team, o Identifying ways that technology can support the company’s strategy, o Supervising new technology development, o Assessing the technological implications of major strategic initiatives such as acquisitions, new ventures, and strategic alliances o Managing organization’s information technology (IT) group “Tyranny of the or” belief that things must be either A or B and cannot be both o “Genius of the and” ability to achieve multiple objectives at the same time Organizational development (OD) systemwide application of behavioral science knowledge to develop, improve, and reinforce the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organizational effectiveness o Human Resources management o OD intervention: attracting good people, setting goals, and appraising and rewarding performance Reasons for resisting change o Inertia o Timing o Surprise 7 o Peer pressure o Selfinterest o Misunderstanding o Different assessments o Management tactics Forcefield analysis approach to implementing Lewin’s unfreezing/moving/refreezing model by involving identifying the forces that prevent people from changing and those that will drive people toward change o Unfreezing realize that current practices are inappropriate and that new behavior is necessary o Moving instituting the change o Refreezing strengthening the new behaviors that support the change Proactive change anticipating and preparing for an uncertain future; implies being a leader and creating the future you want 8