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The article "Effects of Aerosol Species on Atmospheric

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 8E Chapter 6.7

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Problem 8E

The article "Effects of Aerosol Species on Atmospheric Visibility in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan" (C. Lee, C. Yuan, and J. Chang, Journal of Air and Waste Management, 2(V)5:1031-1041) reported that for a sample of 20 days in the winter, the mass ratio of fine to coarse particles averaged 0,51 with a standard deviation of 0.09, and for a sample of 14 days in the spring the mass ratio averaued 0.62 with a standard deviation of 0.09. Let µ1 represent the mean mass ratio during the winter and let µ2? represent the mean, mass ratio during the summer. It is desired to testH0.µ2- µ1 = 0 versus H1:µ2: - µ1 ≠ 0.

a. Someone suggests that since the sample standard deviations are equal, the pooled variance should be used. Do you agree? Explain.

b.Using an appropriate method, perform the test.

Step-by-Step Solution:
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International Law o Roots: western influenced, since western countries are the oldest, most stabilized, and most influential.  1st came European domination, through colonization.  2nd came US domination, through power struggle during Cold War, and later became most powerful nation.  Hugo Gratus- father of Int’l Law- huge influence to negotiations and conflict resolutions. He lived during Age of Reason- where scholars began explaining the world w/basic reason. During this age Natural Law also emerged- belief that all people are born with knowledge of right and wrong. o Trends: increased over time- more actors, such as countries, corporations, inter-govn’tal agencies, non-govn’tal agencies; more contact, through interactions, conflicts, partnerships. Also, interdependence increased: need for set rules, coordination of policies (same policies to create efficiency when contacting each other on int’l level). o Issues: early lawcountries freshly out of war- so boundaries were set thencontemporary law- transnational issues based on economies, environment, human rights, etc. todaydifferences between cultures- issue of cultural relativism- trying to understand other cultures can become difficult, even with great effort. Ex: the way Muslim nations treat their women might seem like oppression, instead of personal choice. In this case, Western countries might fight for rights of Muslim women; while Muslim countries might begin feeling as if Western countries are oppressing. o Creating Int’l Law: sovereign states pursue self-interests. Most agreements are based on customs & agreements. Int’l law could be bilateral or multilateral. Could also form IGOs (Int’l Govn’t Organizations), to establish agreements & to hold up agreements/monitor adherence. Ex: Int’l Court of Justice, WTO- World Trade Organization.  Customs- common practices- ex: an unwritten agreement back in the days used to state that countries would control 3 nautical miles of the sea, off their coasts.  Agreement- formal treaties. o Int’l Law Has a Primitive Nature: is based on old customs & agreements, laws come from different entities (no 1 specific one is set in place to manage for every situation- different countries have different agreements with each other over the same issue. Ex: US might have a law limiting amount of product incoming from Russia, while have no law limiting the amount of incoming product form UK.  Issues: no overarching enforcement authority (ex: police); to pass a law a majority agreement is required=cooperation; creating/planning/gaining support/passing a law takes a long time; self-interests might act in opposition to a mutually beneficial change. o Adherence: Is Int’l law really a law – unanswered question, since there’s no enforcement & compliance is voluntary, because sovereign states’ self-interests prevail. Ex: Russia & Crimea  UN declares vote illegal. However, most countries obey these laws most of the time, since their reputations could be on the line due to lack of compliance; there are always long-term benefits, that outweigh short term losses; complying sets precedence for cooperation, creating an effective system. o Article: Creating Int’l Law: Mercury Agreement.  Why is the Minamata Convention (agreement over mercury) important (1) mercury exposure is highly toxic to inhale, ingest, and at skin contact. (2) mercury waste harms the environment by seeping into soil, polluting the water, poisoning animals and plants, and by climbing up the food chain through bodies of animals. 2  Location: Minamata, Japan- one of the world’s worst cases of mercury poisoning/exposure. Here, a local chemical plant caused water pollution. Sickness became known as Minamata disease.  What does Mercury Agreement regulate Supply; trade; use; emission reduction in mining, power plants, metal production.  Why did 140+ states agree- self-interest; uncontroversial objective due to concern of the safety of the people (an easier type of issues to agree over, since it’s a straight forward issue with a straight forward solution). This also doesn’t restrict coal burning, so the agreement is not economically straining and is relatively easy to fix. 3

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Chapter 6.7, Problem 8E is Solved
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Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 8E from chapter: 6.7 was answered by , our top Statistics solution expert on 06/28/17, 11:15AM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists , edition: 4. Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073401331. The answer to “The article "Effects of Aerosol Species on Atmospheric Visibility in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan" (C. Lee, C. Yuan, and J. Chang, Journal of Air and Waste Management, 2(V)5:1031-1041) reported that for a sample of 20 days in the winter, the mass ratio of fine to coarse particles averaged 0,51 with a standard deviation of 0.09, and for a sample of 14 days in the spring the mass ratio averaued 0.62 with a standard deviation of 0.09. Let µ1 represent the mean mass ratio during the winter and let µ2? represent the mean, mass ratio during the summer. It is desired to testH0.µ2- µ1 = 0 versus H1:µ2: - µ1 ? 0.a. Someone suggests that since the sample standard deviations are equal, the pooled variance should be used. Do you agree? Explain.________________b.Using an appropriate method, perform the test.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 136 words. Since the solution to 8E from 6.7 chapter was answered, more than 293 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: ratio, mass, sample, standard, days. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 153 chapters, and 2440 solutions.

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