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# A voltage V is applied to the capacitor network shownin

ISBN: 9780131495081 132

## Solution for problem 24.40 Chapter 24

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 24.40

A voltage V is applied to the capacitor network shownin Fig. 24-29. (a) What is the equivalent capacitance?[Hint: Assume a potential difference Vab exists across thenetwork as shown; write potential differences for variouspathways through the network from a to b in termsof the charges on thecapacitors and the capacitances.](b) Determinethe equivalent capacitanceif C2 = C4 = 8.0 ixF andCi C3 = C5 4.5 /xF.FIGURE 24-29 40.

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Topic 7: Externalities and Public Goods Externalities ­ Internal costs o The costs of an activity paid by an individual in the activity ­ External costs o The cost of an activity paid for by someone else not directly involved in the activity ­ Social costs o Sum of internal and external costs Third Party Problem ­ Externalities o Occur when private cost (or benefit) diverges from social cost (or benefit) ­ Third Party Problems o People not directly involved in activity experience positive or negative externalities ­ Negative externalities o Costs experienced by third parties o “too much” of the good is consumed and produced ­ Positive externalities o Benefits experience by third parties o “not enough” of the good is consumed and produced Correcting for externalities ­ Internalizing the externality o The individual involved in the activity takes account for social costs (or benefits) ­ For negative externalities o Force individuals to pay for external costs o Tax production o Regulate production ­ Overall output is reduced, illustrated by a leftward shift in supply Correcting for externalities ­ For positive externalities: o Help individuals realize external benefits o Finance and/or subsidize production and consumption of the good o Laws requiring consumption  Vaccines  Education o Overall consumption is increased, illustrated by a rightward shift in demand Positive Externalities ­ When an externality benefits the bystanders, a positive externality exists ­ The social value of the good is greater than the private value Coase Theorem ­ Coase Theorem states that: if there are no barriers to negotiations, and if property rights are fully specified, interested parties will bargain to correct any externalities ­ Known as internalizing the externality Private Goods ­ Characteristics of certain consumption goods ­ Excludable o The good must be purchased before use ­ Rival o The good cannot be enjoyed by more than one person at the same time ­ Private goods o Are both excludable & rival in consumption o Most goods we purchase & consume are private goods Public Goods ­ Public Goods o Can be consumed by many o Difficult to exclude non­payers from consumption ­ Free­Rider problem o Someone has the ability to receive the benefit of a good without paying for it The Swear Jar ­ A Public Good has two characteristics: o Non­rival in consumption o Non­excludable ­ Event creates a serious free­rider problem Club Goods, Common Resources ­ Club goods o Non­rival and excludable (anything with a password is a club good, if not, public good) ­ Common Resource goods o Rival but non­excludable Common Resources ­ Tragedy of the commons: occurs when a rival (but non­excludable) goods becomes depleted or ruined. ­ Similar to a negative externality Importance of Property Rights ­ If not well defined, tend to be exploited, over­used ­ Government can potentially solve the problem ­ General proactive management is needed: o Taxes, regulations, or other ways to internalize a negative externality

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A voltage V is applied to the capacitor network shownin