The article "Determination of Carboxyhemoglobin Levels and Health Effects on Officers Working at the Istanbul Bosphorus Bridge" (G. Kocasoy and H. Yalin, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 2004:1129-1139) presents assessments of health outcomes of people working in an environment with high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Following are the numbers of workers reporting various symptoms, categorized by work shift. The numbers were read from a graph.
Can you conclude that the proportions of workers with the various symptoms differ among the shifts?
Information processing model How do stimuli move through the model What are the major parts of the model What are their function Types of long term memory What are schemas and schema generation Cognitive load theory: total CL = extraneous + intrinsic + germane CL. What are the types of CLT What are the CL effects Describe them. The worked example effect occurs when novice learners studying worked solutions to problems perform better on a problem-solving test than learners who have been given the equivalent problems to solve during training. When solving an unfamiliar problem, problem solvers have no choice but to use a random generation followed by effectiveness testing procedure at those choice points where they have insufficient knowledge to direct choice. The split-attention effect only occurs when multiple sources of information must be integrated before they can be understood. To understand the material, learners must mentally integrate the two sources of information. Mental integration requires working memory resources to be used to search for appropriate references between the multiple sources of information. The modality effect: A visual processor for dealing with two- or three-dimensional objects and an auditory processor for dealing with language. The simultaneous use of both processors can expand the effective size of working memory. The conditions leading to the split-attention effect, multiple sources of information that must be integrated before they can be understood. The redundancy effect applies to multiple sources of information that are intelligible in isolation. redundant information is defined as any information that is not relevant to learning; consists of the same information presented in different forms or media such as presenting the same verbal information in spoken and written form, but it can also consist of any unnecessary, additional information such as decorative pictures, background sound, or cartoons. The expertise reversal effect occurs when an instructional procedure that is relatively effective for novices compared to a control procedure first loses its advantage as levels of expertise increase and then begins to be worse than the control procedure with further increases in expertise. As expertise increases, previously essential information becomes redundant and so imposes an extraneous cognitive load. The guidance fading effect occurs when novices are initially presented with worked examples, but with increasing expertise those worked examples are replaced by completion in which a partial solution is provided and the learner is required to complete the problem. With further increases in expertise, the completion problems should be replaced by full problems. The imagination effect occurs when learners who are asked to imagine a procedure or concept learn more than learners who are asked to study the same procedure or concept. Imagining involves running material through working memory which should assist in the transfer of the information to long-term memory. High element interactivity results in a high intrinsic cognitive load, leaving little working memory capacity available for learning. The isolated interacting elements effect present the material as individual elements ignoring their interactions. This permit the elements to be learned but without understanding. Once the individual elements have been learned, their interactions can be emphasized. It is only at that point that the material will be understood because it cannot be understood by simply considering individual elements Usability What is definition of usability The extent to which a user can fulfill a task using a tool effectively, efficiently, and with satisfaction. Ability to use a system to successfully complete a task. What is definition of user experience “A person’s perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system, or service.’’ Thoughts, emotions, and perceptions that result from an interaction with a system What are the main factors to consider when evaluating the likelihood of users accepting a new piece of technology What are Neilson’s 5 usability goals 1. Learnability 2. Memorability 3. Efficiency 4. Low error rate 5. Satisfaction What are the goals of UI design 1. Provide a multidisciplinary design team 2. Solicit early and ongoing user involvement 3. Gain a complete understanding of users and their tasks 4. Create an appropriate design 5. Perform rapid prototyping and testing 6. Modify and iterate the design as much as necessary 7. Integrate the design of all the system components What are common usability issues 1. Visual clutter 2. Ambiguous menus and icons 3. Unclear step sequence 4. Inadequate feedback and conformation 5. Inefficient operations 6. Annoying distractions 7. Confusing navigation 8. Inadequate error messages, help, tutorials, and documentation 9. Design inconsistency What are some measures that can be used to estimate usability What do the various measures mean for usability 1. Develop the test plan including objectives. 2. Set up a testing environment. 3. Find and select participants. 4. Prepare test materials. 5. Conduct the test sessions. 6. Debrief the participant and observers. 7. Analyze data and observations. 8. Report findings and recommendations. What is done at each stage of conducting a usability experiment 1. Stage 1: Goal formation 2. Stage 2: Execution of activities to achieve the goal 3. Stage 3: Evaluation of the results of the action Understanding users What things do we think about when trying to understand users What are the benefits of understanding users 1. Able to design systems that are more usable, learnable, and efficient. 2. Can lead to financial savings 3. Lead to a safer system Why is there a difference between how we think WE users behave and how they actually behave Why do people have detail blindness, what is an example, and what are the implications for design Your users may have limited vision or even no vision at all. This can be a permanent physical characteristic: they may be blind, for example. It may also be a constraint of the task environment, for example when operating motor transport at night or in foggy weather conditions. One aspect of haptics which have not considered is the feel of a device and the materials it is made from, its esthetics. What user characteristics should we consider when designing How can we gather more information about the users and the tasks they perform 1. Visit user locations 2. Talk with users about their problems, etc. 3. Observe user working or performing task 4. Conduct a think-aloud 5. Try the task yourself 6. Prepare survey and questionnaires for users What is the technology adoption curve How could the categories impact how we design a system The adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. The process of adoption over time is normal distribution or "bell curve." 1. innovators – had larger farms, were more educated, more prosperous and more riskoriented 2. early adopters – younger, more educated, tended to be community leaders, less prosperous 3. early majority – more conservative but open to new ideas, active in community and influence to neighbours 4. late majority – older, less educated, fairly conservative and less socially active 5. laggards – very conservative, had small farms and capital, oldest and least educated What happens if a user has a poor mental model of an application 1. Confusion 2. Annoyance 3. Frustration 4. Panic or stress 5. Boredom What key thing can we do when designing an application to help users form more correct mental models 1. Minimizing the number of steps to accomplish tasks 2. Minimizing control actions and movements 3. Automating repetitive tasks Anthropometrics What is it Anthropometrics is concerned with the physical aspects of the user and the system. What are the two aspects of users and technology that it is concerned with 1. How the users will interact with the system (posture) 2. How much weight the user can carry and support (load bearing) What usability issues arise from considering anthropometrics What sense do haptic devices rely on Sense of touch, a combination of two senses: the skin and kinesthesis. What are some implications of Fitt’s law The first is that larger objects lead to faster pointing times than smaller objects. The second is that shorter distances also lead to faster reaction times. What is a new anthropometric issue that came about with mobile phones