The assembly consists of a cantilevered beam CB and a simply supported beam AB. If each beam is made of A-36 steel and has a moment of inertia about its principal axis of Ix = 118 in4, determine the displacement at the center D of beam BA.
Study Guide: Comprehensive Portion of Final Exam Ch2 1.What is the octet rule How is it significant Atoms are stable when their outer shell is full (8 electrons, with the exception of Hydrogen, whose outer shell is stable with 2 electrons.). This is significant when it comes to bonding (determines how many bonds an element can form) and elements becoming stable. 2.Explain the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds and the role of electronegativity in each. Covalent bonding is when 2 atoms share electrons. It is the strongest type of bondtakes a lot of energy to break the bond. Can be single, double, or triple bonded. Polar Covalent“unequal” sharing, when atoms have different electronegativities, the shared electrons are more likely to be in the outer shell of the atom of the higher electronegativity rather than the atom of lower negativity. They occur because the distribution of electrons around the atoms creates a polarity, or difference in electric charge, across the molecule. An example of polar covalent bonds is water. Electrons tend to be in the more electronegative oxygen atom rather than either of the less electronegative hydrogen atom. Thus, making water have a partially positive and partially negative endpolar covalent bonding. Nonpolar covalentopposite of polar, when atoms have the same electronegativity, they share the electrons equally, weaker bondsbreak easily with less energy. 3.Describe hydrogen bonds and their importance in biology. Hydrogen bonds are very weak bonds and are easily broken. They occur between molecules that have polar covalent bonds (between polar molecules). They form between water molecules. When 2 polar molecules get close enough, the opposite partial charges attract and bond. They are represented by dashed or dotted lines. Collectively they can form strong bond overall. The importance in biology is that they hold DNA strands together. It is important to have weak bonds holding DNA together because the bonds need to be broken in order for the DNA to go through replication and to make RNA. They are also involved in substrate/enzyme bonding. The reaction has to bind temporarily so weak bonds would help this happen 4.Using table salt as an example, describe the formation of ions, ionic bonds and the effect of water on these. Figure 2.12 5.Distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic and amphipathic substances. Hydrophilicwaterloving, readily dissolves in water, ions and polar molecules Hydrophobicwaterfearing, do not readily dissolve in water, nonpolar molecules like hydrocarbon Amphipathichave both polar or ionized regions at one or more sites and nonpolar regions at other sites, the water interacts with both regions respectively 6. Draw 2 water molecules. Label the atoms, polar covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds. Ch3 7. What is an organic molecule What’s special about carbon An organic molecule is a molecule that contains carbon. Carbon can make up to 4 bonds that can be either poplar or nonpolarvery bond friendly. 8. Describe how polymers are formed from monomers and how monomers are formed from polymers. Polymers are formed by dehydration synthesis or condensation in which water is taken out of the molecules to join the monomers together, which forms the polymer. Monomers are formed by hydrolysis in which water is added to the molecules, which break apart the bonds, releasing energy and forming monomers. 9. Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Give examples of each. Monosaccharidessimplest sugars/carbohydrates. Ribose, deoxyribose, hexose, or pentose. Most common are 5 or 6 Carbon. They can be ring or linear. Fig. 3.6 Disaccharidescarbohydrates composed of 2 monosaccharides covalently bonded between the 2 sugars. Joined by dehydration synthesis or condensation. Broken apart by hydrolysis. Examples include sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Fig 3.7 Polysaccharidesmany saccharides linked together to form long polysaccharides. Examples: energy storagestarch, glycogen; structural rolecellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycan. 10. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated: single bonds, solids at room temperature, straight, found in animal products Unsaturated: double bonds (1 double bondmonounsaturated, 2 or more double bondspolyunsaturated), liquids at room temperature, bended (because of the double bonds)further apart. Usually found in oils. Fig. 3.10 11. Describe the 5 factors that promote protein folding. 1. Hydrogen bondsholds together secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. Weak bondeasy to breakchange in structure=easy 2. Ionic bondsbonding between the ions 3. Hydrophobic effectscaused by proteins placed in H O2 4. Van der Waals forcesvery weak, between atoms that are a certain distance aparteasy to be broken to change 5. Disulfide bridgescovalent bonds that are very strong Fig 3.18 12. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. DNAdeoxyribose sugar, contains base Thymine (T), 2 strands (double helix), 1 form RNAribose sugar, contains base Uracil (U), 1 strand mostly, several forms Bothcontain bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Fig 3.23,24 Ch4 13. Compare and contrast the 2 kinds of ER. Both: network of membranes that form flattened, fluid filed tubules or cisternae, encloses a single compartment called the lumen Rough ER: studded with ribosomes, involved in protein synthesis and sorting Smooth ER: lacks ribosomes, involved in detoxification (a lot in the liver), carbohydrate metabolism, calcium balance, and the synthesis and modification of lipids Fig. 4.17 14. Describe the structure and function of the Golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Golgi: stack of flattened membranebound compartments which are not continuous with the ER, vesicles transport materials between stacks. 3 overlapping functions: secretion, processing, and protein sorting (post office of the cell), Fig. 4.18 Lysosomes: where the enzymes are kept that deal with digesting, contain acid hydrolases that perform hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. Autophagyrecycling of wornout organelles through endocytosis Vacuoles: empty space, functions extremely varied, differ among cell types and environmental conditions o Centralin plants for storage and support o Contractilein protists for expelling water o Phagocyticin protists and white blood cells for degredation o Fig. 4.20 Mitochondria: outer and inner membrane. Intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix. Primary role is to make ATP, Fig. 4.24 Chloroplasts: photosynthesis, capture light energy and uses some of that energy to synthesize organic molecules such as glucose, found in nearly all plants and algae, outer and inner membrane with an intermembrane space, third membrane, the thylakoid membrane, forms flattened tubules that stack to form a granum (pancake analogy), fig 4.25 Peroxisomes: relatively small organelles found in all eukaryotic cells, originates from the endomembrane system, general function to catalyze certain chemical reactions, typically those that break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen, reaction byproduct is hydrogen peroxide (H O )2 c2talase breaks down the hydrogen peroxide without forming dangerous free radicals 15. List the semiautonomous organelles. Why are they called that Mitochondria and chloroplasts They are called that because they can grow and divide to reproduce but not completely autonomous because they depend on other parts of the cell for some internal components Fig. 4.23 Ch5 16. How are the phospholipids arranged in the plasma membrane Why Hydrophobic tails facing inward and the hydrophilic heads facing outward so the cell can interact with water and other substances Fig. 5.1 17. Distinguish between the 3 types of transporters. Uniportertransport a single molecule or ion Symporter/cotransportertransports 2 or more ions or molecules in the same direction Antiportertransport 2 or more ions in opposite directions. Fig.5.20 18. Assuming only water can diffuse across a cell membrane, draw a picture of an animal cell in an 1) isotonic solution 2) hypertonic solution 3) hypotonic solution. Ch6 19. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions. Exergonic ΔG<0. Products have less energy, there is negative free energy change, going “downhill”, free energy exits, spontaneous Endergonic ΔG>0. Products have more free energy, “uphill”, free energy enters, not spontaneous 20. Describe how cells use ATP hydrolysis to run endergonic reactions. Change in G is 7.3 kcal/mole, delta G is negative which means its is exergonicenergy is released and can drive a variety of cellular processes Fig. 6.3 21. Thoroughly explain Fig. 6.5. 22. List factors that affect the function of enzymes and explain why. Most enzymes function maximally in a narrow range of temperature and pH. Outside of + this narrow range, enzyme function decreases. Changes in kinetic energy and H ions can weaken Hbonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals forces that hold 3D shape. Loss of shape=loss of function 24. Distinguish between anabolic and catabolic pathways. Anabolicpromote synthesis and are endergonic, must be coupled to an exergonic reaction Catabolicresult in breakdown and are exergonic 25. Define redox, reduction, and oxidation. Give an example of a redox reaction Electron (H) removed from one molecule and is added to another OILRIG Reduction is loss of electron (H) Oxidation is gain of electron (H). Ch7 26. List the 4 pathways in glucose metabolism. Glycolysis Breakdown of pyruvate Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation 27 Where does glycolysis occur Describe the starting materials and the end products. Outside of the mitochondria, in the cytosol Starting materials: 1 glucose, 2NAD+, and 2 ATP end products: 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH 28. Where does the breakdown of pyruvate occur Describe the starting materials and the end products. In the mitochondrial matrix Starting materials: Pyruvate, NAD+ End products: 2CO , 2 NADH, acetylCoA 29. Where does the citric acid cycle occur Describe the starting materials and the end products. In the mitochondrial matrix Starting materials: AcetylCoA, oxaloacetate End products: citrate (citric acid), 4CO , 2ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH 2 2 30. Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur Describe the starting materials and the end products. In the mitochondrial matrix Starting materials: NADH, FADH , Ox2gen End products: ATP, H O,2NAD+, and FAD+ 31. What is the electron transport chain What is the final electron acceptor Group of protein complexes and small organic molecules embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Electrons come from NADH and FADH . Can accep2 and donate electrons in a linear manner in a series of redox reactions. Movement of + electrons generates H electrochemical gradient/protonmotive force. Excess of positive charge outside of matrix. O 2is the final electron acceptor. 32. What does ATP synthase do Where Enzyme harnesses free energy as H flow through the membrane embedded region. Energy conversionH electrochemical gradient or proton motive force converted to chemical bond energy in ATP. Rotary machine that makes ATP as it spins in a process called chemiosmosis Ch11 33. Describe the structure of DNA. Include nucleotides, phosphodiester bonds, backbone, base pairing, hydrogen bonding, complementary and antiparallel in your description. DNA is a double helix consisting of nucleotides (phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base). Nucleotides are covalently bonded together by a phosphodiester bond. Phosphates and sugars form the backbone. The bases project from the backbone. The basepairing rule is as followed: AT, GC. Hydrogen bonds bond the bases together. 2 strands of DNA are complementary meaning that the basepairing rule applies. They are also antiparallel which means that one strand goes 5’ to 3’ and the compliment strand goes 3’5’, while following the basepairing rule. Fig. 11.5, 6, 7, 8, 10 34. Describe DNA replication on the lagging strand. Replication can only occur in the 5’ to 3’ direction. Since the DNA strands are antiparallel, there will be a 5’ to 3’ strand (leading strand) and a 3’ to 5’ strand. But the 3’ to 5’ strand (lagging strand) needs the help of proteins to cheat the system and add nucleotides in the 5’ to 3’ direction. In the lagging strand, DNA is synthesized 5’ to 3’ but away from the fork. Okazaki made as a short RNA primer made by DNA primase at the 5’ end and then DNA is laid down by DNA polymerase. RNA primers will be removed by DNA polymerase and filled in with DNA. DNA ligase will join adjacent DNA fragments. 35. List the proteins with their functions involved in DNA replication in order of when they function. Helicase unwinds the DNA Topoisomerase prevents supercoiling of the unwound DNA Singlestrand binding keep the 2 strands of DNA apart Primase makes an RNA primer Polymerase covalently bonds the new nucleotides by a series of condensation reactions Ligase joins the adjacent DNA fragments Fig. 11.16, 17, 20 Ch12 36. How is gene expression analogous to a monarchy The king (DNA) lives in a castle (nucleus) and tells his messenger (mRNA) to go to a blacksmith (ribosomes) to make a crown (protein) for the king 37. What are the 3 stages of transcription Initiation o Recognition step o In bacteria, sigma factor of RNA polymerase recognizes promoter region Elongation o RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA after (in bacteria) release of sigma factor More complicated in prokaryotes o Polymerase opens helix 1015 base pairs longbreaks the hydrogen bonds o One of the strands is the template strand used for RNA synthesis Other strand (coding) strand is not used o RNA synthesized 5’3’ o Uracil substituted for thymine o As polymerase moves, DNA rewinds Termination o RNA polymerase reaches termination (terminator) sequence o Polymerase and newly made RNA transcript dissociate from DNAunlike replication, the RNA molecules goes into the cytoplasm to do something so it will not stay stuck to the DNA In Eukaryotic transcription o Basic features identical to prokaryotes, however, each step has more proteins. Also has RNA processing, premRNA Fig. 12.5 o Will choose the 3’5’ strand as a template 38. Using the cheeseburger analogy, list the events in order to form the initiation complex during translation. Bottom bunsmall subunit of ribosome PattymRNA CheesetRNAamino acid Top bunlarge subunit of ribosome 39. Draw a picture showing the relationship between a mRNA sequence and a polypeptide sequence. On the mRNA, label the 5' and 3' ends, start and stop codons, and other codons. Using a genetic code table, draw the corresponding polypeptide and label the Nterminus, Cterminus, peptide bonds and each specific amino acid. Ch 15 40. What are homologues What are sister chromatids When a species is diploid, members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues One of these pairs comes from the mother, the other from the father Very similar in size and genetic composition o Slight differences provide variation in gene function Same type of genes but different in sequence. Example: eye color genes Sex chromosomes differ in size and genetic composition Sister chromatids2 identical DNA copies attached at centromeres o Kinetochore are proteins that are involved in getting the chromatids separate and moving. o Connected by a centromere 41. Define diploid and haploid. Name the types of cells in humans that are diploid and haploid. Diploid (2n): 2 sets of chromosomes o Human body cells23 pairs=46 total chromosomes Haploid (n): 1 set of chromosomes o Human gametes1 chromosome from each pair=23 total chromosomes 42. Explain the 5 phases of mitosis. Prophase o Nuclear envelope dissociates into small vesicles o Sister chromatids condense into highly compacted structures visible by light microscopy Prometaphase o Mitotic spindle is completely formed o Centrosomes move apart and demarcate the two poles (identifying where the poles are) o Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids o Two kinetochores on each pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore microtubules on opposite poles Metaphase o Pairs of sister chromatids are aligned along a plane halfway between the poles called the metaphase plate (equator) o Organized into a single row o When this alignment is complete, the cell is in metaphase Anaphase o Pairs of sister chromatids split apart at centromeres o Each chromatid (now a chromosome), is linked to only one of the two poles by one or more kinetochore microtubules o Kinetochore microtubules shorten and overlapping polar microtubules slide over each other pulling the chromosomes toward opposite poles Telophase o Chromosomes have reached their respective poles and decondense o Nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei o Cytokinesis begins 43. Describe in detail what occurs during Meiosis I and Meiosis II Meiosis I o Prophase Isynapsis and crossing over, replicated chromosomes condense and form as the nuclear membrane breaks down o Prometaphase Ispindle forms, and the bivalents are attached to kinetochore microtubules o Metaphase Ibivalents organized along metaphase plate as double row Mechanism to promote genetic diversity Law of independent assortmentrandom alignment of chromosome pairs leads to the independent assortment of alleles found on different chromosomes o Anaphase Isegregation of homologues occur Connections between bivalents break, but not the centromeres that hold sister chromatids together Joined sister chromatids migrate to one pole. And the homologous chromatids moves to the opposite poles o Telophase Isister chromatids have reached their respective poles, decondense, and nuclear membranes reform o Cytokinesis o Original diploid cell had homologous pairs of chromosomes, while the two cells produced tat the end of meiosis I are haploidthey do not have pairs of homologous chromosomes Meiosis II o No S phase between meiosis I and meiosis II (no DNA replication o Sorting events of meiosis II are similar to those of mitosis o Sister chromatids break apart and are separated during anaphase II, unlike anaphase I 44. Give examples of trisomies in autosomal chromosomes and trisomies and monosomies in sex chromosomes in humans. Autosomal o Trisomy 21Downmental impairment, abnormal pattern of palm creases, slanted eyes, flattened face, short stature o Trisomy 18Edwardmental and physical impairment, facial abnormalities, extreme muscle tone, early death o Trisomy 13Pataumental and physical impairment, wide variety of defects in organs, large triangular nose, early death Sex o XXYKlinefeltersexual immaturity (no sperm), breast swelling in males o XYYJacob’sTall o XXXTriple Xtall and thin, menstrual irregularity o XOTurnerShort stature, webbed neck, sexually undeveloped Ch 16 45. Describe in general Mendel's singlefactor (monohybrid) cross. Diagram a single factor cross for plant height beginning with the P generation, then F1 and then F2. Include genotype and phenotype ratios for each generation. Single factor cross o Experimenter follows the variants of only 1 trait o He started with parent plants that were purebred (P generation true breeding parents). The plants he got from this cross was called the F 1generation. Then the F 1eneration self fertilized creating the F 2generation. 46. Discuss 3 important ideas from Mendel's monohybrid crosses. 1. Dominant and recessive traits o dominant is displayed o recessive trait is masked by the dominant 2. Genes and alleles o particulate mechanism of inheritance o his “unit factors” are genes o every individual has 2 genes for a trait o gene has two variant forms or alleles 3. Segregation of alleles o approximately 3:1 ratio o two copies of a gene carried by an F1 plant segregate (separate) from each other, so that each sperm or egg carries only one allele o Mendel’s Law of Segregation 2 copies of a gene segregate from each other during the transmission from parent to offspring 47. What is a test cross Give an example. A dwarf pea plant must be tt A tall pea plant must be either TT or Tt We can figure out if it is TT or Tt using a test cross Cross unknown individual to a homozygous recessive individual. If some offspring are dwarf, unknown individual must have been Tt. If all offspring are tall, the unknown individual was TT 48. Explain in general Mendel's twofactor cross. Diagram an example. Follow inheritance of 2 different traits Possible patterns o 2 genes linked so that variants found together in parents are always inherited as a unit or 2 genes are independent and randomly distributed 49. Explain Xlinked traits using an example. In humans, X chromosome is larger and carries more genes than the Y chromosome Genes found on the X but not the Y are Xlinked genes o Sex linked genes are found on one sex chromosome but not the other Males are hemizygous for Xlinked genes o Hemophilia A examplecaused by recessive Xlinked gene o Encodes defective clotting protein o For a daughter to have it, her dad would have to have had it and the mother be a carrier Recessive Xlinked disorders are more common in _____ . they inherit the allele from their _______ and pass it on to their ______ o Sons, mothers, daughters Ch 51 50. Describe the parts and functions of the human male reproductive system. Genitalia consist of penis and scrotum. Scrotum holds testes where sperm develop at 2 degrees C lower than core body temperature. Each testis composed of seminiferous tubules (site of spermatogenesis) and Leydig cells (secrete testosterone). Sperm released into lumen of seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells provide nutrients and protection to developing sperm Sperm then move into epididymis to complete their differentiation by becoming motile and capable of fertilization. Then to vas deferens leading to ejaculatory duct and urethra. Semen contain fluid and sperm. o Sperm about 5% of volume. o Fluid from seminal vesicals (fructose), bulbourethral glands (alkaline mucus), and prostate gland (protective fluid) 51. Explain the function of testosterone and how it is regulated. Gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) made by hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and folliclestimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone Testosterone acts on o Sertoli cells and germ cells to stimulate spermatogenesis o Stimulates growth of male reproductive tract and genitalia during development and puberty o Stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics – facial hair, horns on bulls, bright feathers of peacocks FSH (with testosterone) stimulates Sertoli cells and spermatogenesis. Controlled by negative feedback. Increased GnRH at puberty initiates release of LH and FSH 52. Describe the parts and functions of the human female reproductive system. Genitalia differentiate from the same embryonic tissue as male genitalia. External opening leads to vagina, cervic, and into uterus. Uterus has inner glandular lining (endometrium) and outer muscular layer (myometrium) Eggs develop in one of 2 ovaries. Typically, one egg released into abdominal cavity. Quickly drawn into oviduct or fallopian tube by action of fimbriae. Egg moved down oviduct by cilia. Fertilization usually occurs in oviduct. Blastocyst is a ball of 32150 cells that enters uterus Oogenesis o Most female mammals are born with all the primary oocytes they will ever have. About 1 million at birth but degeneration leaves about 200,000 in each ovary at puberty. Ovarian cycle last approximately 28 days in humans. Several oocytes begin maturation but only 1 is ovulated each cycle. Menopauseoocytes become depleted and ovulation stops 53. Thoroughly explain Fig. 51.10 Gonadotropic hormones: come from pituitary, both levels are low in the first 2 weeks of the cycle. At ovulation, there is a spike in LHcauses ovulation to occur. the lower levels allow the follicle to develop. At the same time, hormones are being produced in the ovary itself. The ovarian hormonesestradiol develops, when it gets really big, there is a bigger estradiol production. After that, the corpus luteum develops and secretes progesterone. If there is no pregnancy, then the corpus luteum degenerates. The estradiol and progesterone has effects on the uterus. There is a shedding of the lining of the endometrium within the first 7 days of the cycle. It sheds part of the outerinner part. At day 7 the estradiol levels increaseallow the endometrium to develop again. At day 14 ovulation occurs in the ovary then progesterone starts up. It causes develop in the glands that secrete the substances that sustain the embryo Ovarian cycle o During first week, several primary oocytes begin to develop, each within a follicle. By second week, only 1 follicle and its primary oocyte continuing developing. Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis to become secondary oocyte. Secondary oocyte surrounded by cumulus mass, which secretes estradiol. At ovulation, follicle ruptures releasing egg, zona pellucida, and cumulus mass. Empty follicle becomes the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone that stimulates uterus to sustain embryo. If there is no pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates and a new set of follicles begin developing Follicular phase o First half when growth and differentiation of follicle occurring. Fairly low LH levels stimulate follicular cells to make estradiol. Estradiol levels slowly increase. Initially, estradiol exerts a negative feedback action on LH and FSH to prevent their blood levels from rising until the follicle is ready to ovulate. When the follicle is ready, its estradiol production jumps. Feedback switches from negative to positive resulting in an LH spike. LH spike induces ovulation – rupture of follicle Spontaneous vs. induced ovulation Luteal phase o Corpus luteum develops and secretes progesterone. Inhibits FSH and LH secretion and prepares uterus to receive embryo. If fertilization occurs, cells surrounding embryo produce chorionic gonadotropin which maintains corpus luteum. If fertilization does not occur, corpus luteum degenerates in 2 weeks and cycle begins again Uterine (menstrual) cycle o Menstruation (17 days) initiated when corpus luteum degenerates; shedding of outer endometrium. Other mammals have estrous cycles (uterine cycle without bleeding) Proliferative phase (714 days) o Endometrium becomes thicker and more vascularized Secretory phase (1428 days) o Glands develop that secrete nutritive substances to sustain embryo for first 2 weeks If embryo does not implant, lining shed If embryo does implant, pregnancy begins Ch 40 54. Make a table comparing the 4 types of tissue. Include columns for tissue name, defining characteristics, types if applicable, and locations. Name Characteristics Types Places Muscle Bundles of muscle Skeletal, smooth, In muscles, heart, fibers that are cardiac organs specialized to contract when stimulated. Nerve Clusters of cells Neurons Brain, spinal that initiate and chord, throughout conduct electrical the body signals from one part of an animal's body to another part. Epithelial (Fig. Covers the body, Pseudo stratified Nasal passage, 40.4) lines walls of body ciliated columnar, kidney tubules, cavity and organs, simple cubodoil, urethra, intestines, protect and stratified lungs, esophagus secrete or absorb, columnar, simple lining selective barrier columnar, simple squamous, stratified squamous Connective (Fig. Connect, anchor, Blood, adipose, Around bones, 40.5) and support. bone, cartilage, plasma, fat, tips of Contain abundant loose, and dense nose and ears extracellular connective tissue matrix around cellsprovides scaffold for attachment, protects and cushions, mechanical strength, transmit information