The truss is made from A992 steel bars, each of which has a circular cross section with a diameter of 1.5 in. Determine the maximum force P that can be applied without causing any of the members to buckle. The members are pin connected at their ends.
SP 16: ENGLISH 2202 LECTURE NOTES TH ST WEEK 12: MARCH 29 & MARCH 31 TUESDAY MARCH 29 TH Important Vocabulary Words: 1. Tiresias T.S. ELLIOT: THE WASTE LAND (PG. 1317) *Published in 1922: important work of the modernist period -Poem is difficult, but not for no reason---a rationale for the difficulty: it is what modernism is supposed to represent: a new kind of art -a difficult style is necessary to deal with difficult conditions of modern life and how we view it -Avant garde, rejection of realism and unified representation of the world *experiment with form, style to reflect complexity of modern life and disorientation/uncertainty/lack of agreement -reality is no longer objective but subjective (experimental) *The Waste Land: -so many pieces, parts combined together -multiple threads that don’t always connect -little explanation -6 languages represented: key element of poem is fragmentation -fragmentation of social life, stranger encounters, urbanization, atomization, incohesion -social, psychological and daily life fragmentation -modern life in 20 cent: industrialized society about fragmented pattern of life, repetition, routine that is broken into little pieces (combine fragmentation and routine) -highly ordered, commercialized (ex. Rise of assembly line work) -fragmented, broken tasks constantly repeated -live efficiently and routinely by multiple, repeated tasks -modern life busy: try to get many things done in little time -technological stimuli, distracts attention -psychological fragmentation: doing something on auto-pilot, unconscious at work while you do something else *Fragmentation produces a “cacophony”-have various noises come together in jumbled way, not harmonious *poem is supposed to do this PART 1 Pg. 1318: “April…. tubers” -April is a month of growth, lilacs bloom, beginning of spring -distorted allusion to Chaucer (Canterbury Tales): Pilgrims travel to Canterbury, tell tales -Chaucer: talks of the advent of spring, relieves earth of dryness/winter *borrows a lot from other texts and periods (explained in footnotes) -hear many other voices in poem (Shakespeare, Chaucer, etc.) -multiple perspectives, subjectivity -Alters Chaucer’s words -Elliot: April not happy, beautiful time, but the “cruelest month”, focus on dead land *struggle between death and life-reference to deaths in WW1 -WW1: a modern war, new technology -Elliot: non-realistic representation of the war, a surreal feeling, dreamlike, illogical -War is unpresentable in “real” ways because no stable truths in the world (like Yeats’ ideas) *Elliot’s theme of a waste land: things won’t grow, infertile, desolate -line 19: what can even grow -no water, broken images (the fragments of the poem) *Contrasted with Chaucer: pilgrimage to a religious site to restore faith, while Elliot uses a loss of faith (ex. Line 25) -allusion to the Bible: see fear and desolation only, no growth and renewal like Chaucer *draught, waste land, arid=lack of certainty and stability (moral and spiritual) because of war *Water=restores a draught (water represented multiple times in poem line 47-drowned sailor, part 3-Thames River, etc.) *is there hope to relieve the draught (spiritual rebirth) How do we achieve it *line 43: Madame Sosostris -famous clairvoyant, wise woman -like a fortune teller, sees future, tarot card reader -Theosophy (Yeats)-Madame Blavatsky (Madame S. is Elliot’s parody of Madame B.) -desperate search for mystical wisdom (not glorified searches for meaning) -cheap attempt to recover certainty *Opening lines Part 1: -emphasis of death, but depicts plants growing from dead earth -April is cruel because of the growth…why -winter keeps us warm ---complex psyche -Elliot uses the seasons symbolically to represent a mental condition (paradoxes) -snow: repressive, made us forget what was “underneath” (pain, death, tragedy) -spring: cruel because it melts snow and uncovers the pain and mixes it with desire *last part of Part 1 -Line 60: “unreal city”-London, busy metropolis -reference to Dante’s Inferno -people going across London Bridge under a huge brown fog -modern experience of urban crowd juxtaposed with death -dead: automatic, routine of work, don’t feel alive -urban crowd: atomized, people don’t engage with each other, no sense of community -because of this, city seems “unreal” or not really there *line 69: speaker part of the crowd - “corpse in garden”-surrealism -battle of Mylae (reference to WW1) -hypocrite reader: speaker here, calls out to Stetson and tries to have a conversation but Stetson doesn’t pay attention----Stetson has become the reader/us -reader is hypocritical: live own lives as if we are individual—call out for reader to see common relationship *feel alienated PART 3: FIRE SERMON *line 215: story of woman (typist) comes home from work, end of the day, dusk -Human is like a machine, losing energy, what are they waiting for Always on the move *point of view of TIRESIAS: (footnote pg. 1322) -blind prophet/seer of future in Greek mythology -In Homer’s Odyssey -Myth: spent time as both a man and a woman (throbbing between 2 lives) -he’s a hovering presence that watches the woman who is coming home from work -clearing table for “tea time”, clothes drying, sofa piled with clothes/undergarments -Image of the modern single woman: typist job, lives alone, house messy, dishes, clothes -contrasts this image with old Victorian image of femininity and private sphere, good, clean home, moral -in modern period we have come a long way from “angel in the house” -not neat, ordered, messy, lack of modesty (underwear all over couch) -has a young man come over and has sex with him -Tiresias also awaits guest -man arrives: a clerk, office worker, modern -lower class, has a silk hat to look flashy Or is hat a simile -time is now right for sex -tries to start making a move on her, woman doesn’t say no but doesn’t really want to THURSDAY MARCH 31ST IMPORTANT VOCABULARY WORDS: 1. STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS STYLE ELLIOT: THE WASTE LAND (CONT) -for final exam: will not be responsible for identifying any quotes from “The Waste Land” -other exam passages will be from what we discuss in lecture or recitation *Main difference from Owen’s modern condition of war: Owen=realistic, graphic. Elliot=implies that the “modern” is “unrepresentable”, why poem is incoherent and surreal *modernity needs new methods to convey reality *representation of anonymous, urban city-routine, mechanical, no shared humanity *reader: hypocrite lecteur (won’t admit we are all similar) *work for complexity, efficiency, machine like production *poem asks: if we are leading such mechanical lives, what has become of our spirit *contrast with Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales: religious pilgrimage to restore faith *Waste Land: deliberately distorts Chaucer reference, dry waste land depleted of spiritual plentitude and moral certainty *But, he is implying the idea of a sort of pilgrimage and spiritual restoration, but its different…is there some sort of ray of hope of spiritual reinvigoration *Image of April: vegetation tries to come out of the waste land… hopeful image *Image of typist: witnessed by Treatises (a spectator/seer/prophet, not a character) -Carbuncular arrives, his assurance is like a silk hat sitting on a millionaire -lower class, Bob Cratchet figure, seems sort of creepy, pimply, flawed, but has an air of confidence -he’s “no prize to be won” -has a date with typist, going to try to make a move on her, doesn’t push him away, but also not really desiring him -man brushes it off and goes for it anyway, becomes aggressive (not a rape), she is just indifferent/bored, couldn’t care less -Tiresias: he’s seen this in advance this scene, sees the patronizing last kiss and the man just leaving----depressing scene (just has sex then leaves, but she doesn’t really even care!) *Modern femininity: unchaste, unsexually modest, no virtue to “save” for marriage -change from angel in the house of Victorian Era -No moral center of society if woman is no longer moral *Sex scene: shows social fragmentation and alienation of individuals -sex is not intimate, not for family, but something people do who don’t really care about each other. Not really into it *Woman: her reaction underlines fragmented psyche, she just goes through motions -indifferent, unconsciously just has sex and doesn’t really even care about it -guy leaves, she just puts on music, again acts on auto pilot *poem: a constant struggle between life and death, go through life unconsciously *Line 312/Part 4. Death by water: - addresses reader again, consider the description of Phlebas he just described -Phlebas also mentioned earlier: sees a tarot cart of the drowned sailor -Phlebas: image of a dead sailor on the ocean floor -forgotten the profit and the loss: -now that he is dead, he is unaware of mortal concerns and capitalism -dies by drowning: water a cure for draught -water and drowning here have positive connotations -drowning is good because now he forgets about capitalist concerns -death is a good thing: suggests dead to mortal life, but now reborn spiritually -just a skeleton, outside of time, experiencing after death *Part 5: -What the thunder said, reassert need for rain to cure draught -storm: ironically welcome because it cures draught -line 331: rock and no water, all just a draught -so little water you can’t even sweat or spit, no hydration at all -dry sterile thunder without rain -the thunder: associated with water, but barely there *longing for water throughout the poem (longing for spiritual regeneration) -repetitiveness of water and rocks: shows delirium of being in a desert -line 360: the third -refers to exploration of Shackleton -allusion to bible rd -two people walk, 3 person is Crdist (who’s that with you) -can’t really tell if there is a 3 person or not *End -half promise of lightening and thunder -line 394: finally get rain -thunder speaks: onomatopoeia (Da Da Da) -Da: Datta-give -Da: Dayadhuam-sympathize -Da: Damyata-control -Elliot gives image of water, but shifted away from glimpse of Christ to Hinduism -Line 396: sacred river in India (Hinduism) -Da’s: reference to Upanishad’s-Hindu spiritual treatises -thunder “quotes” from Hindu truths *meanings: give, sympathize, control-from Hindu religion *shift of Christianity to Hinduism -speaker desperately acting through moral and social disorder -search for anything to give a spiritual answer (like thunder) -Line 431: FRAGMENTS SHORED AGAINS MY RUINS *talks of fragments of faith and fragments of the poem itself *social ruin and fall into disorder (modern condition) *Fragments pulled together to try to find a new version of order *shanti (last line)-peace -opposite of war -peace: inner calmness -slight shift in tone: up until now been confusion, disillusion, but last line shows small tone of hope, but its qualified (still reflects uncertainty of modernism) -beyond our rational attempt to understand, can’t be represented simply VIRGINIA WOOLF *sees modernism as an opportunity to push for something new *not really “hopeful”, but sees a new opportunity for women to speak *Woolf: associated with early feminism -battles inherited ideas of “femininity” -reject values of Victorian period, including what it means to be a woman (gender) (Online: “professions for women”—on Carmen) *angel in the house is “killed”-sympathy, grace, purity, charm, “womanly” traits---gone! *woman writer’s responsibility is to “kill” the angel in the house -don’t be hampered by old ideas of what it means to be a woman -be assertive and don’t shy away *angel is like a hovering spirit, but visible—calls it a Phantom (not real even though it seems to be there) ---just a cultural idea, not a reality! -harder to kill a cultural idea vs. a real thing -very pervasive, no specific target, truth just by tradition *Woolf is funny, ironic and light hearted