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Show, using a ray diagram, that the magnification m of

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780131495081 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli ISBN: 9780131495081 132

Solution for problem 32.21 Chapter 32

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780131495081 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 32.21

Show, using a ray diagram, that the magnification m of aconvex mirror is m = ~d[/d0 , just as for a concave mirror.[Hint: Consider a ray from the top of the object that reflectsat the center of the mirror.]

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Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Format of Test  200 Points (20% of total grade)  40 questions (5 points each)  15 short answer (one word answers)  20 multiple choice  5 true/false  Emphasis on:  Order Names: 8 1.) Odanta 2.) Orthoptera 3.) Hemiptera 4.) Coleoptera 5.) Siphonaptera 6.) Lepidoptera 7.) Blattodea 8.) Diptera  Human Diseases  Genus name of disease agent  Type of organism  Insect vector  Questions from quizzes  Feb. 22  Order:  Odonata  Odous = tooth  Common name: dragonflies  Dragonflies and Damselflies  Incomplete metamorphosis  Biting mouthparts  Two pair wings  VERY large eyes  Very small antennae  Long abdomen  Nymphs are aquatic  Nymphs and adults are predators Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Considered beneficial  Dragonflies and damselflies  Front and back wings beat independently  Damselfly vs. dragonfly [Dg]  Damselflies are smaller than dg  Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest. Dg holds wings out to side  Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems underwater; dg lays eggs on water surface  Adults regulate their temperature  Nymphs are predators  Nymph stage lasts for 1 too 3 years  Nymph to adult stage is dangerous  Must first pump hemolymph into wings  Dragonflies and damselflies  Hunted prey by sight  Use leg hairs to catch prey  Excellent fliers  Muscles are attached to wings [like birds or bats]  Insect behavior: reaction of insects to specific conditions  Males are territorial  Mate in wheel position  Male first removes rival sperm from female  Male and female are in “tandem” during egg laying  This keeps other males from mating with female  Feb. 24  Order: Blattodea  Common­ cockroach  Incomplete metamorhosis  Chewing mouthaparts  Two pair wings  Nocturnal omnivore  Flattened body  Eggs laid in egg case = ootheca  Domestic pests Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  omnivores ­ both plant and animal material are eaten  Cockroaches adapted to living with people  Only 20 cockroach species are pests  Peripheral vision  Antennae detect food and water. They keep the antenna clear.  Tail hairs are sensitive to movement  Cockroaches defense pest control “bait” 1) smell bait at distance  2) touch bait with antennae  3) touch with the hairs on mouthparts  4) chew and taste bait  5) spread bait mechanically  *termites evolved from cockroaches  Cockroach (r ) fossils 300 million years old  Some R eat wood  Like termites, these R have protozoans (P) to digest cellulose  Cockroach reproduction: 1) male strokes female antennae to identify her  2) male offers food gift to her  3) mate end to end  4) female mates once and then stores sperm  5) she can have 7 broods  6) ootheca have 40 eggs  7) nymphs burst the ootheca by gulping air & expanding  Feb. 26  Order: Orthoptera  Orthos = straight  Ptera = wings  Common name: grasshopper, cricket, locust  20,000 species Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Grasshoppers, Crickets  Incomplete metamorphosis  Chewing mouthparts  Front wings are narrow  Back wings are fan­like  Strong hind legs  Males produce sound  Sound receptors on leg or abdomen  Oviposit eggs in soil or plant  Plant eaters  Major agricultural pests  Stridulation: production of sound to attract a mate  Cricket Songs  Each species is different  More chirps/seconds = higher temperature  Establish territory  Call a female  Warn others of predators  How is sound produced  Crickets and some grasshoppers rub a wing against a wing  Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing  Wings/legs have bumps and ridges = “file and scraper”  Wing can serve as amplifier  Crickets and Grasshoppers  “Call” to find a mate  Mate at night to reduce danger from predators  Some predators and parasites attracted to “call”  It is safer to be a strong “silent” male  Crickets Use  Court case to lower rent  China: raise crickets for fight  Sell for fish bait  A cricket genus = Gryllus  Locusts [L]  #1 Agricultural insect pest in the world  Two phases: solitary [S]; gregarious [G] Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Stimulation of hairs on back legs S L causes swarming: SL ­> GL  Swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects  Nymphs stay in soil several years during drought  Blew/flew to Americas from Africas  Locust Swarm  Eat: 2,000 tons/day  Travel: 65 miles/day  Oviposit in soil  1 female => 500 nymphs  Locusts have plagued us since biblical times  Exodus Chapter: 10  “I will bring locusts into your country…”  Feb. 29  Order: Hemiptera  Hemi = half  Ptera = wings  Species = 68,000  Common names:  Bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas  Hemiptera  Incomplete metamorphosis  Piercing and sucking mouthparts  Pest of crops  Transmit disease  “True” Bugs  Mouthparts [beak] swing forward  Many species are predators  Base of forewing is hardened  Back of forewing is membranous  Many have stink glands  Assassin bug: piercing/sucking mouthparts  Hemiptera  Bed bugs [BB] feed at night  BB inject an anesthetic  BB suck human blood Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Vector: a means of biological transfer  Human Diseases  Common name of disease  Scientific name of diseases agent  Disease agent = what type of organism [protozoan, bacterium, or virus]  Arthropod vector  Chagas’ Disease  Vector: assassin bug [= kissing bug]  Disease: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan)  One million people die per year  Primarily in South America  Attacks the heart  Hard to diagnose; no cure  Reservoir hosts = opossums and armadillos  Spread of Chagas’ Disease [CD]  Kissing bug [KB] feeds on victim [V] at night  KB defecates on V’s face  V rubs feces [F] + Trypanasoma [T] into wound  Xenodiagnoses of CD  Laboratory KB feed on patient  10 days later: look for T in KB F  ∙ Xenodiagnoses: vector to diagnose disease  Aphids  Mouthparts [break] swing down  Plant feeders  Membranous wings  Major agricultural pests  Aphids [Ap]  Ap have many predators  Ap give birth to nymphs  Plant defense = sticky hairs  Ap are usually wingless  Overpopulation results in winged Ap  Honeydew: a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids  Honeydew [H] Production by Aphids  H allows water excretion Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  H attracts ants  H can cause fungal growth  H = manna  Hemiptera Diversity  Bugs  Aphids  Scales  Cicadas  Spittlebugs  March 2  Order: Coleoptera  Coleo = sheath  Ptera = wings  Common name = beetles, weevils  Species = 300,000  Coleoptera  Complete metamorphosis  Chewing mouthparts  Forewings hardened  Hind wings membranous  Thickened exoskeleton  Pests of crops and trees  Largest insect order  Metamorphosis: change in the structure and habits of an animal  Complete metamorphosis  Egg  Larva  Pupa  Adult  Complete metamorphosis  4 stages often very different in:  Appearance  Habitat  Host Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Predators  And parasitoids  Ladybugs [L]  L life up front wings and fly with hind wings  L are beneficial; L eat aphids  Adult L overwinter in massive clusters  L are collected and sold for biological control  Beware of insects with combined word names:  Coleoptera: ladybug, firefly  Odonata: dragonfly, damselfly  Ephemeroptera: mayfly  Diptera: housefly  Fireflies  Each species has a unique flash pattern [FP]  Male flashes to attract female  Female flashes in response  Male and female have different FP  Some females mimic FP of females of other species and prey on males  Firefly larvae are aposematic  They glow to deter predators  Fireflies flash in unison only in India and Tennessee  Fireflies  Produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen  98% of energy is released as light  March 14  Dung is valuable food source  Elephant Dung Beetles [DB]  Many insects attracted to dung  DB have specialized mouthparts  DB roll dung into balls  Civet cats [CC] feed on DB  CC produce civetone [C] in anal gland  C is used in perfumes  Australia Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Cows were imported  Insects couldn’t cope with dung  Grassland was lost  Solution: Import dung beetles  Ancient Egypt  The SCARAB [S] = a stone beetle  S was the symbol of the soul  S was also the Sun God Ra  Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction  Spanish Fly [SF] = Blister Beetle  SF produces a toxin: cantharidin [C]  Hippocrates used C as medicine  Marquis de Sade used C as aphrodisiac  C causes burning sensation in groin  C destroys mucous linings in the body  Acorn Weevil [AW]  Female AW has a long snout [mouthparts]  AW drills hole in acorn with snout  Then, AW oviposits into this hole  AW lays 1 egg per acorn  AW larva eats acorn  Whirlgig Beetle [WGB]  WGB is a scavenger  WGB has divided eyes so it can see above and below the water  WGB spins in circles to create waves that bounce back to WGB when they hit food item  WGB carries air bubble to breathe underwater  March 16  March 18  Insect plant interactions: coevolutionary arms race  Plant produces toxin  Insect adapts to toxin  Plant makes more powerful toxin Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Plant defense against herbivores  Silicon oxide in leaves [like eating glass]  Proteinase inhibitors [animals can’t digest food]  Secondary Plant Products [toxic compounds]  Plant surface has hairs = trichomes [T]  T may produce toxins  T may be sticky  T may be spines or hooks  When a plant is wounded it wants to:  Limit water loss  Prevent fungal/bacterial infection  Deter herbivory  J. Park  Fossilized plant resin = Amber = gem  DNA found in fossil [F] insects  Sequence F DNA  Determine relatedness of insect species  Recover dinosaur blood [DNA] from F m  Carnivourous Plants  Sundews  Venus Fly Trap  Bladderworts  Pitcher Plants  Sundews  Bright colors attract insects  Leaf tentacles have sticky glue  Electrical signal causes leaf to curl  Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey  Venus Fly Trap [VFT]  VFT has trigger hairs [TH] in  Touching TH causes electrical signal [S]  Two S cause rapid growth of outer leaf  Leaf closes on insect; VFT digests it  VFT only found in wetlands of NC and SC  Bladderworts [B]  B are aquatic Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  B have a bladder with a trap door  When prey item hits trigger hair, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000 of a second  Pitcher Plants  Flower­like: nectar and color attract insects  Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose  I fall into “pool” and are digested  March 21  Order: Diptera  Common name flies and mosquitoes  Species 90,000  Diptera  Complete metamorphosis  Mouthparts: piercing/sucking  Pair of membranous wings  No hind wings  Halteres: Stabilizers (replace hind wings)  Many larvae are aquatic  Most harmful order: many cause disease  Flies are the best insect fliers  House Fly transmits disease mechanically: It picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location  House Fly [HF]  HF can “see” movement very well  HF uses leg hairs to taste  HF has SPONGING MOUTHPART  Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling  Fly Farms  Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste  Medical treatment  Peal with poor circulation  Leg [or arm] wounds heal slowly  Add fly maggots to wound  Maggots eat dead flesh  Prevents amputation Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  African sleeping sickness  Vector: Tsetse Fly  Disease: Protozoans  Trypanosoma  Drug Treatment is Effective  65,000 deaths per year  Sleeping sickness kills people and cows  Wild animals = Reservoir host  Africans can’t raise cattle  People of Africa Need More Protein  Tsetse fly = Guardian of Africa  § Because Native habitat has been saved  Tsetse Fly Female [TFF}  TFF does not lay eggs  1 egg hatches inside TFF  Larva develops inside TFF  Mature larva [L] is born  L burrows into soil and pupates  Adult emerges from soil  TFF produces only 8 larvae  March 23  Mosquito Life Cycle  Eggs laid in or near water  Aquatic larvae  Aquatic pupae  Adults live 1­3 weeks  Female mates in male swarm  Male feeds on flowers  Female needs “blood meal”  Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing  Mosquitos have piercing/sucking mouthparts  Mosquitos [M]  Female M attracted to host CO2  Sound of female M wings attract male M Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Mosquitoes: piercing/sucking mouthparts [PSM]  PSM have:  Protective sheath  Tube to suck blood  Knife­like mouthparts  Saliva injector (stops blood clotting)  1897: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes malaria  1900: Walter Reed showed that mosquitoes yellow fever  Yellow Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  Reservoir Host: Monkeys  Worst in South America and Africa  No Effective Treatment  Dengue Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  No effective Treatment  South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Zika Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  No effective Treament  South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Special Concern: Pregnant women  Zika may cause microcephaly  Malaria  Vector: Mosquito Anopheles  Disease: Protozoan  Plasmodium  Drug Treatment is effective  South America, Africa, and Asia  Malaria Life Cycle:  Mosquito [M] feeds on infected host [H]  Plasmodium [P] mates in M’s stomach Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  P moves to M salivary glands  M feeds on new H  P move to H liver  P attack H red blood cells  H red blood cells rupture  Cycle repeats in H: 24, 48, or 96 hours  Mated Female Mosquito  Eggs do not develop without a Blood Meal  Head produces hormones needed for egg production  Natural Selection in Africa  A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin  This change provided resistance to malaria  People with one copy of the gene survive malaria  People with two copies have sickle cell anemia  Order: Siphonaptera  Siphon = tube  Aptera = wingless  Common name: Fleas  Siphonaptera  Complete metamorphosis  Piercing/sucking mouthparts  No Wings  Adults of both sexes are blood­sucking parasites  Good Jumpers and runners  Narrow boy  Many are disease vectors  Fleas  Female needs blood for eggs  Female eats 15X her weight/day  Female lays 2000 eggs  Eggs hatch in 1 to 10 days  Larvae feed on adults  Larva spins a sticky cocoon  Cocoon is well camouflaged  Life cycle = 12 to 174 days Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Environment [temperature and humidity] is very important  Fleas are attracted to  Heat  Co2  Light  Movement  Fleas  Can jump 200 times their length  Resilin = a protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band  Miriam Rothschild is a world flea expert  She showed that female flea [FF] reacts to sex hormones of a pregnancy female host  FF adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host  FF lays her eggs on babies of host  Bubonic Plague  Vector: fleas  Disease: Bacteria  Bacteria Name: Yersinia pestic  Antibiotic treatment is effective  Found in: Russia, Middle East, Western US  Major outbreak in India  Bubonic Plague: How is the Bubonic Plague spread by a flea  Reservoir = Rodents  Bacteria enter flea with blood meal  Bacteria multiply in flea guy  Bacteria block entry to gut  Flea seeks new host  Flea feeds on new host  Regurgitates blood with bacteria  Host is infected  Elephantiasis [E]:  Vector = mosquitos  Disease organism = roundworms  E causes swollen appendages  300 million people in Southeast Asia in E  River Blindness Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Vector: Black flies  Disease: Round worms  West Africa  20 million people infected  Possible use of insects in war  Modify plague bacteria  Destroy crops  War on drugs

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Chapter 32, Problem 32.21 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics
Edition: 4
Author: Douglas C. Giancoli
ISBN: 9780131495081

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