If the apex angle of a prism is = 72 (see Fig. 32-64),what is the minimum incident angle for a ray if it is to emergefrom the opposite side (i.e., not be totally internallyreflected), given n = 1.58?
Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide RUSSIAN MUSIC: NINETEENTH CENTURY: Modern Russian symphonic music dates back to the mid-19th century Pre-18th-century music in Russia was based on the church or folk music o Consisted of singing, rather than instruments In the 18th century music started being imported from the West o This resembles the history of literary development Mikhail Glinka, 1804-1857 o Works include: European orchestration techniques Russian folk elements o Best-known works: A Life for the Tsar (1835-1836) Based on legend from Russia’s Time of Troubles in the early 17th century o When a Russian is captured by invading Poles, he leads them away from the monastery they had demanded he show them o He knows that this will mean his death o Tsar is hidden there Ruslan and Ludmilla (1838-1842) Based on Pushkin’s narrative poem by this name Petr Tchaikovsky, 1840-1893 o Russia’s best-known composer for Westerners Some fellow-Russians objected to his inclusion of Western European orchestral traditions Works: o Piano Concerto #1 in B-Flat Major (1874) One of the most famous piano concertos in the world o Marche Slave (1876) Written on behalf of the Russian liberation of Serbia Contains the theme “God Save the Tsar” o Opera Eugene Onegin (1877) Based on Pushkin’s long poem o Swan Lake (1877) One of the best-known Russian ballets o 1812 Overture (1880) Written in honor of the Russians’ defeat of the French Contains “God Save the Tsar” as well as the French anthem “La Marseillaise” o Ballets Sleeping Beauty (1890) Nutcracker (1892) Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide THE FIVE: Russia’s nationalist school of musicians Also called “The Mighty Handful.” Goal was to compose uniquely Russian music Opposed the more European-focused “Conservatory” musicians Mili Balakirev (1837-1910) o Founder of the group o Sought for Russian music to develop not only based on European models, but also on native Russian ones o Best-known works: Overture on Russian Folk Themes Islamey Includes melodies from themes he heard in the Caucasus Aleksandr Borodin (1833-1887) o Chemist by profession o Best-known works: Opera Prince Igor Wrote over a period of twenty years Based on the Igor Tale Contains a section called the “Polovtsian Dances” Ballet that is often performed separately by symphony orchestras Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) o Most original of the group o Army officer and alcoholic o Traced his roots back to Riurik’s dynasty of Kievan Rus’ o Influenced by folk melodies in his works o Best-known works: Night on Bald Mountain (1867) Calls to mind a witches’ Sabbath Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) Includes scenes evoking ancient Kiev Boris Godunov (1875-80) Opera we have seen partially in class Later rewritten in part by Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) o Engineer and musical scholar o Identified and classified hundreds of Russian folk songs o Works include: Scheherezade (1887-1888) Ballet based on the Arabian nights Sadko (1896) Opera based on a Novgorod folk tale Tale of the Tsar Sultan (1899-1900) Comic opera based on a poem by Pushkin Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Includes the ballet sequence “The Flight of the Bumblebee.” Cesar Cui (1835-1918) o Least-known of the group o Works: The Prisoner of the Caucasus (1859) Based on a poem by Pushkin Russian Realist Painters (2nd half of 19th century) Realist authors like Turgenev o Interest in the peasantry o Desire through literature to improve the lot of the Russian people o Calling for the end of serfdom o Asking for a new and more just order Nationalist Russian musicians o Broke away from the academy to showcase native Russian themes in their music o Mussorgsky Realist painters also attempted to paint life just as it was Peredvizhniki (the Wanderers, the Itinerants). o New movement in art o Russian artists wanted to play a role in making Russia a more liberal and just place o Painters broke from the official art academy and started their own travelling exhibitions Particularly from Itinerants or Peredvizhniki o Determined to serve the peasantry Russian Populism 1860s and 1870s Students went to the countryside to teach peasants, then directed efforts at urban populations 1,000’s of idealists went to preach in the countryside a doctrine of social progress and the common good o 1874 People and the government were baffled Students were arrested Art reflects this social trend by combining a respect for the values of peasant life and a deep desire to reform social and political life Leo Tolstoy supported these trends o Ivan Kramskoy Leader of Peredvizhniki Mission was to create a Russian rendering of Christ o Ilia Repin Most famous member Known for portrayals of what was going on in Russian society, with a political twist Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Became famous with his painting of the Volga Barge-Haulers, full of human misery (1870-3) Series about injustice of Russia "They Did Not Expect Him," o Portrayed the return home of a political prisoner o (1883-98) Painted famous portraits of novelist Leo Tolstoy, especially dressed as a peasant (1891-3) o Isaac Levitan (1882-90s in particular) Known for portrayals of Russian Nature o Another theme: old Russia Mystical approach to the motherland Prime example is the work of painter Vasily Surikov Major work is the Boyarina Morozova (1887) o Portrays an Old Believer being taken off to prison IMPORTANT ART Ilia Repin, Volga Barge-Haulers Ivan Kramskoy, Russian version of Christ Ilia Repin, Barefoot painting of Tolstoy Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Isaac Levitan, House With Ilia Repin, “They Did Not Broom-Trees Expect Him” Isaac Levitan, Spring in the Forest Vasily Surikov, Boyarina Morozova Isaac Levitan, Autumn Road in a Village Pushkin and Lermontov Pushkin’s “The Queen of Spades” & Lermontov’s “Taman” o Examples of Russian Romanticism Romanticism reaches its height in Russia in the 1820s o Influence of Byron and Byronism Byronic hero was a defiant, melancholy young man, apart from and misunderstood by the rest of society o Pushkin writes Byronic tales o Pechorin, hero of Lermontov’s Hero of Our Time, from which “Taman” is taken, is clearly in that same tradition o Russian Romantic writers focus on: Escapism and rebellion Social protest and individual isolation Exotic settings Madness and murder Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide o Adapted these themes to a Russian milieu o Pechorin and Pushkin’s Onegin in Eugene Onegin are seen as experiencing a uniquely Russian sort of boredom That of the superfluous man Superfluous men were Romantic characters seen as out of harmony with world around them, rejecting it or being rejected by it Pushkin, “The Queen of Spades” o Born 1799, died 1837 in a duel o Fall 1833: finishes “Bronze Horseman” Tale of Petersburg o After that, turned predominantly to prose “Pikovaia dama” (“The Queen of Spades”) Written 1833 & published 1834 Ghost story Family drama Social commentary Main characters in the story Lermontov, “Taman” o Somewhat late, since finished 1840 and appeared 1841 Mikhail Lermontov: o People tend to group Pushkin and Lermontov together Extraordinary poets who died very young in duels Believed in poet’s task as one of preaching freedom Lermontov seen as Pushkin’s heir Very influenced by the older poet o Born in 1814 (15 years after Pushkin) o Came of age during a very reactionary time, the period when the czar clamped down on early freedom-lovers o HUGE impact of Pushkin’s death Deeply distraught Wrote poem about the event Angry at anyone who condoned d’Anthes killing Pushkin Becomes famous Nicholas I is appalled and alarmed o Lermontov exiled to active service in the Caucasus o Published a book of verse and also in 1840 his novel A Hero of Our Time o Died in a duel in 1841, at not quite 27 years of age o A Hero of Our Time Written 1837-40 First major prose novel in Russian literature Main character: Pechorin Lermontov saw Pechorin as typical of his generation Often seen as the heir to Pushkin’s Evgenii Onegin, the superfluous man Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Gogol and Turgenev Russian lit of nineteenth century (post-Romanticism) known as Realist o Particularly 1840-1890s o Present life as it is, rather than romantically presenting emotions and feelings o Focus on details, slice of life, setting, nature, believable dialogue that reflects social classes o Most important: focus on Russian reality Particularly people, social institutions, social needs o Novels in particular, as we see with Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, become vehicles of social action, social change. Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol, 1809-1852 o Dostoevsky famously said, “We all came out from under Gogol’s overcoat.” o Wrote some very famous works Novel Dead Souls Play The Inspector General "The Overcoat” 1835 Gogol began a new chapter in Russian literature Underdog and social misfit treated not as a nuisance, or figure of fun, or object of charity, but as human being Akaky Akakievich demands our sympathy o What does he say to the people who torment him o Downfall comes when he succumbs to the lore of the new coat, rather than simply finding joy in copying o Where does he live, and how is the city portrayed Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev, 1818-1883 o Lived much of his life abroad o Dostoevskii disliked him and caricatured him in his last work The Devils Suggested at one point that if he wished to continue writing about Russia, he might want to purchase a telescope in order to train his sights on his far-off native land o Seen at times as an outsider Believed in the ideals of Western, liberal humanism Struck Western European contemporaries as most Western of Russians o Passed much of his life in France and Germany as an expatriate o Read hugely in English, French, German, and Spanish literature o Tolstoy and Dostoevsky eclipsed Turgenev in perceived importance at turn of century He was older and seemed old-fashioned o Two lines of Russian literature One stems from Pushkin Clear and harmonious Tolstoy Turgenev Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Other from Gogol Startling and strange Crazy narrators and twists of plot Dostoevksii o Turgenev importance: When Turgenev began writing novels, there was no tradition of Russian novel-writing Instrumental in creating the Russian novel st 1 Russian writer to gain a big reputation in the West. o Turgenev's first literary sensation (1852) Notes of a Hunter Russian Uncle Tom's Cabin o Expose of the evils and injustices of serfdom Serfs were freed in 1861 Greeted with rapture o Progressives for its attack on serfdom o Slavophiles for its sympathetic treatment of the Russian peasant 2 Groups of Russian intellectuals of 1840’s o Slavophiles Celebrated all that was uniquely Russian and did not seek inspiration in Western Europe o Westernizers Wanted Russia to follow the West in its development and customs Dostoevsky Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, 1821-1881 o Born into family of former army surgeon Father's brutality Idealizes image of his mother Both parents die when he's a teenager o Escapes into books--later, too, as a student at military academy o Short novel, “Poor People” Brings instant fame Not for long o Lives in poverty "I'm living in hell. I don't see life, don't have time to breathe." o 1849 arrested for membership in Petrashevsky Radical discussion group Sentenced to death--last-minute reprieve Serves sentence in Siberia Out of literary life for a decade o Returns to St. Petersburg Now conservative politically and religiously Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Regains fame writing about prison experience Journalism: publishes a journal along with his brother o Great novels Crime and Punishment The Idiot The Devils/Possessed The Brothers Karamazov o Known as a psychological author Work influenced Freud and Nietzsche o “The Meek Woman” How is "the Meek Woman" described What about the narrator Why do they get married What is the significance of her singing Tolstoy 1828-1910 Born at estate called Yasnaia Poliana o Born to Count Nikolai Tolstoi and Princess Maria Volkhonskaya o Received the estate in 1847 1862 marries Sofia Bers o 13 children 10 survive Dies at stationmaster’s house in Astapovo Sent to university but left without a degree Joined army and went to the Caucasus in 1851 o Begins literary career while in army o Wrote Childhood and Boyhood and military tales Reputation strong by the time he turned up in Petersburg Returns to estate o Tries to educate children of his serfs In 1860s writes War and Peace o Finishes it in 1869 1873-7 Anna Karenina o During this time incredibly depressed Thinks of suicide By 1878 has undergone a conversion o Wanted to destroy previous work 1882 writes his Confession o Censors wouldn’t let him publish Rest of his life spent propagating his religious views o Kingdom of God is Within You: 1893 Text that stresses non-resistance to evil and anarchy Influenced Gandhi o Started writing stories for peasants Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Along with V.G. Chertkov founded in 1884 a non-profit publishing house meant to publish and distribute these stories Best known Russian of his time by the end of his life o Conscience of humanity and the sage of Yasnaya Polyana Committees in Europe and US o Appalled government and official church Excommunicated from Orthodox Church in 1901 o Most works post-1880 banned by censors Last years married by marital strife o Left in protest and died at RR station Known best for his novels of the middle period o Anna Karenina and War and Peace Known for a literary technique called estrangement, or in Russian остранение ostranenie o Makes a reader look at a known phenomenon in a new way "Holstomer" Horse describes typical human notions, such as the idea of property, in a new way and that in turn makes us look at something we take for granted in a new way Why does Holstomer describe himself as thrice unfortunate Chekhov 1860-1904 Prolific writer of short stories Author of 4 well-known plays Doctor, at varying points in his life Move beyond Realism, into a new, twilight age of Russian culture Writing reflects his work as a good doctor o Compassionate, clear-eyed, unsentimental o Not tendentious literature: reports dispassionately in his short stories As opposed to Dost. or Tolstoy, with their proclamations He was absolutely adored by his readers & by those who saw his plays o Plays are a product of the 1890s Chekhov became Russia's leading dramatist Married Olga Knipper o Leading actress who played Mme Ranevskaya in the first "Cherry Orchard" production in 1904 (written in 1903) o Lived apart and he encouraged her to pursue her career Died of tuberculosis in 1904 The 20th-century Russian writer Pasternak wrote of Chekhov's stories o Deceptive simplicity o Chekhov gives us a slice of life, and he doesn't judge it o A picture of a moment in Russian society, in the life of one Russian person or an interaction Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Chekhov's plays o Real drama of the plays lies in human relations, rather than in big actions Melodramatic actions or speeches don't change status quo By the time he writes "Cherry Orchard," that is beginning to change The characters except Lopakhin don't really do anything, and the major action happens off stage Mme Ranevskaia does not want anything to change, while Lopakhin wants to cut down the cherry orchard to make way for a new world Many main characters, no one most important People's lack of mutual understanding and communication Portrait of his world, a dying, changing world o Cherry orchard o Butler, Fiers Gorky 1868-1936 Born Aleksei Peshkov o Took pseudonym Gorkii to show bitterness of life Means “bitter” Heralds the new Soviet order Realist Writer Early Life o Lower middle-class family o Lost parents, started life on his own at 11 o Dishwasher, baker, all sorts of different professions described in his three-volume autobiography Wrote stories of the hobo, the drifter Soon Gorkii's stories were being published by big journals in Petersburg and Moscow o Around 1899 Stories known for their sympathy with the urban underclasses Eventually Gorkii becomes known as a radical, revolutionary member of the leftist intelligentsia o Publishes in journals where Lenin also publishes o Exiled temporarily Actively supported the revolution of 1905 o Joined the Bolshevik party at that point After 1917 Gorkii recognized that many writers were starving o Set up publishing venture to get great works of literature translated into Russian o Used his credit with the new regime to save lives and culture Left SU in 1921 Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide o Ended up in Italy, until 1931 Lured back by Stalin Gave him a mansion and then (possibly) killed him "26 Men and a Girl" 1899 o Early story, not overtly revolutionary Roots of Gorkii's later political activity o How do the men in the story live Still people Also note singing Poor living conditions o Why do they love Tanya They need something to love o How does she betray them Gets with the new bun baker o How does Gorkii bring out the contrast between the man she loves and the men who give her biscuits o How is the story written Told in first-person plural No individuality for the men cooped up Seen by other and themselves as a nondescript, anonymous group The Silver Age Symbolism, Acmeism, Futurism New reading class was developing in this new, modernist world o Stress on: The individual Feelings/emotions The new Creativity Revolution The spiritual ELITE group of writers developing (vs. Gorky) o Writing not for new reading masses but for the select o Called first Decadents, then Symbolists o Sought to write about same issues in new, esoteric language The individual Role of the artist in society Sexuality Political change Social change st o 1 generation of Symbolists (1890s) led by the writer Valerii Briusov Inspired by the example of the French Symbolists, particularly Baudelaire Set out to create one a movement like the French Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide "O cover thy pale legs" Scandalous verse, the public shocked o Briusov happy Determined to create a new writing style in Russia One that would make people wake up and realize that Russian culture must change New world requires a new style of literature o 2ndgeneration of Russian Symbolists Bely, Blok, Ivanov Literature played a more serious role, not only style and shocking content, but spiritual meaning as well New, complicated, shocking style Higher purpose in mind These writers think that: Symbolism o Each word stands for a higher ideal o If we are the right kind of reader, we will gain access into that higher world by reading The writer is a priest o Guide his few comprehending readers to a higher world, to a revolution of the spirit o Create new Russians, a new Russia, filled with people with insight into holy, otherworldly ideas Bely convinced that his literature could inaugurate a new world o 1 of the ways this could happen was through his language: repetition, ellipses, abrupt punctuation, neologisms make the reader work to come to enlightenment End goal: Create a spiritual revolution in Russia Big influence is the philosopher Vladimir Soloviev o Acmeists Next group of "elite" writers Much easier to deal with Rejected the highflying goals of Symbolism Rejoiced in classical culture Wrote elegant, classical verse Osip Mandelstam and Anna Akhmatova o Futurists Rejected all literature and culture of the past "Throw Pushkin and Dostoevsky off the ship of modernity” Looking for radical departure from any literature of the past The world existed as an end in itself Didn't need reference to meaning or reality Russ 280 Exam 2 Study Guide Produced nonsense words, syllables artistically positioned on a page Music of the Silver Age Moussorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov's return to a glorified Russian past as a way to discuss contemporary Russia or to escape from it Symbolic mysticism of Scriabin (1872-1915) o Became affiliated with a cult Convinced he was a godlike font of creativity privy to the secrets of the universe o Preoccupation with mystical philosophy filled his compositions First Symphony has choral finale that glorifies art as a form of religion o Other Works Third Symphony The Divine Poem Based on theosophy Mystical teaching common to Symbolists such as Belyi for instance o Dreamed of redeeming all of humanity by creating a powerful synthesis of all the arts Stravinsky (1882-1971) o Based his music in Russian folkloric roots o Rejected Western-style harmonies o 1913 Rite of Spring was a huge scandal wthn it was first performed Most famous musical work of 20 century Huge riot when 1 performed in Paris Stress on primitivism Subtitled “Scenes of Pagan Russia” Depicts orgy in ancient Slavic past Incredible syncopation Surprising meters o Taught by Rimsky-Korsakov Orchestration influenced Stravinsky's