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The end faces of a cylindrical glass rod (n = 1.51)

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780131495081 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli ISBN: 9780131495081 132

Solution for problem 32.85 Chapter 32

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780131495081 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli

Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 32.85

The end faces of a cylindrical glass rod (n = 1.51) areperpendicular to the sides. Show that a light ray entering anend face at any angle will be totally internally reflectedinside the rod when it strikes the sides. Assume the rod is inair. What if it were in water?

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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR EXAM 2 REVIEW (CHAPTERS 7-11) I. CHAPTER 7 – ATTITUDE A. attitude- relatively enduring overall evaluations of objects, products, services, issues or people; general feeling B. Functional Theory of Attitudes 1. 4 Functions: 1) utilitarian function- attitudes to obtain rewards/ avoid punishment 2) knowledge function- simplify decision processes 3) value-expression function- expression of core values 4) ego-defensive function- defense mechanism to defend low self-concept C. 3 Components of Attitudes: a) AFFECT – feelings about an object b) BEHAVIOR c) COGNITION – thoughts/beliefs about an object 1 HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS d) high involvement – C, A, B – think, feel, act e) low involvement – C, B, A – think, act, feel f) experiential involvement – A, B, C – feel, act, think g) behavioral influence – B, C, A – act, think, feel D. Multiattribute Model - overall evaluation from combined attitudes E. Attitude Towards Objects (ATO Model) - attitudes are made up of attitudes from all attributes - Ao= Σ(b i(e i - A= overall attitude / Σ= sum of all b(e)’s / b= beliefs about an attribute / e= evaluation of attributes 1. beliefs – VARY across brands 2. evaluations – do NOT VARY across brands F. Compensatory Model - decisions are compensatory or non-compensatory - high ratings on one attribute can makeup for low ratings on another o it “compensates” for the bad o ATO model is compensatory G. Attitude Behavior Consistency H. relationship between an attitude toward an object and the behavior towards that object (FIG 7.4) I. Change in Attitudes: 4 Theories 1. ATO Model - changes in beliefs/evaluations can affect our attitude - positives and negatives of an attritube 2. Balance Theory - people want to be consistent in their thoughts (FIG 7.6) 3. Elaboration Likelihood Model - consumers process messages in 2 ways: o CENTRAL ROUTE – highly involved; really care about message o PERIPHERAL ROUTE – low involvement; don’t really care - 2 cues IN the message: o CENTRAL cues – info about the quality of the product o PERIPHERAL cues – info UNRELATED to the product 4. Social Judgment Theory (FIG 7.7) II. CHAPTER 8 – GROUP & INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE A. group influence- the ways group members influence attitudes B. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GROUP: - share common goals/interests - communicate with and influence one another - view themselves as members of common social unit - IN group defined by NOT being OUT group C. group types: PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ASPIRATIONAL, DISSOCIATIVE D. aspirational groups- group in which one desires to become a member dissociative groups- group in which one does NOT want to belong E. social power- ability of individual/group to influence the actions of others 1. referent power 2. legitimate power 3. expert power 4. reward power 5. coercive power F. Group Influence on PRODUCT SELECTION (FIG 8.2) - product necessity VS. consumption setting - public necessity, public luxury, private necessity, private luxury G. Word of Mouth (WOM) - positive or negative - fake WOM (ex: paid/phony reviews) - amplified WOM (ex: being sent free products to share about) - influence of social media III. CHAPTER 9 – CONSUMER CULTURE A. what does culture do - gives meaning to objects - gives meaning to activities - facilitates communication B. cultural norms- rules that specify what is or is NOT appropriate behavior in a situation within a given culture C. Dimensions of Cultural Values 1. Core Societal Values (CSV) – (TABLE 9.4) - individualism – value self, personal achievement o OPPOSITE: collectivistic culture - masculinity – value assertiveness and control o OPPOSITE: feminine culture - power distance – emphasize social status (high power) o OPPOSITE: low power distance - uncertainty avoidance – uncomfortable with unknown and high risk o OPPOSITE: low uncertainty avoidance - long term orientation – o OPPOSITE: short term orientation D. glocalization – idea that market strategy may be global but the implementation of that strategy at the marketing tactics level should be local (ex: McDonald’s menu varies from country to country/culture to culture) IV. CHAPTER 10 – MICROCULTURES A. microcultures – group of people who share similar values and tastes that are subsumed within a larger culture 1. role conflict- consumer experience conflicting expectations based on cultural expectations 2. divergence- consumers choose membership in microcultures in order to stand out or define themselves B. FACTORS OF MICROCULTURES: 1. geography 2. age/generations a) cohort- group of people who have lived the same major experiences, which end up shaping their core values - Greatest Gen: before 1928 – hard work, self sacrifice, conformity - Silent Gen: 1928-45 – civic duty, strong faith in gov’t, frugal - Baby Boomers: 1945-65 – suburbia, self absorbed, stressed - Gen X: 1965-80 – latch key kids, cynicism, practical - Millennials: 1980-95 – embrace technology, optimism, econ. hardships - Gen Z: 1995-2013 – social media, technology, accepting diversity V. CHAPTER 11 – CONSUMERS IN SITUATIONS A. Time 1. Time pressure- causes the use of HEURISTICS- mental shortcuts 2. Time of day a) circadian cycle- daily energy cycle based on sleeping and waking times 3. Time of year a) advertiming- places ads/promotion strategically at certain times of the day/year B. Construal Level Theory 1. proximal event- will happen soon; viewed concretely 2. distal event- won’t happen for a long time; viewed discretely (ex: volunteering 3 mo. from now VS. the day before C. Atmospherics 1. fit- how appropriate the elements are to the environment 2. congruity- consistency of elements with each other 3. ELEMENTS: a) odor - olfactory b) music – fast vs. slow; secular vs. religious c) color – cool vs. warm d) merchandising – signage, placement e) social setting – crowdage (nonlinear effect) D. Types of Shopping 1. acquisitional – oriented toward a specific, intended purchase 2. epistemic – acquiring knowledge about a product 3. experiential 4. impulsiveness – spontaneous; diminished regard for consequences - self regulation- inhibiting situational influences from interfering with intentions o action oriented VS state oriented E. IMPULSIVE vs UNPLANNED vs COMPULSIVE 1. impulsive- spontaneous; hedonic; self- fulfillment 2. unplanned- spontaneous; utilitarian 3. compulsive- compulsive buying disorder; harmful/uncontrollable; chronic depression CONSUMER BEHAVIOR EXAM 2 REVIEW (CHAPTERS 7-­‐11) I. CHAPTER 7 – ATTITUDE A. attitude-­‐ relatively enduring overall evaluations of objects, products, services, issues or people; general feeling B. Functional Theory of Attitudes 1. 4 Functions: 1) utilitarian function-­‐ attitudes to obtain rewards/ avoid punishment 2) knowledge function-­‐ simplify decision processes 3) value-­‐expression function-­‐ expression of core values 4) ego-­‐defensive function-­‐ defense mechanism to defend low self-­‐ concept C. 3 Components of Attitudes: a) AFFECT – feelings about an object b) BEHAVIOR c) COGNITION – thoughts/beliefs about an object 1. HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS a) high involvement – C, A, B – think, feel, act b) low involvement – C, B, A – think, act, feel c) experiential involvement – A, B, C – feel, act, think d) behavioral influence – B, C, A – act, think, feel D. Multiattribute Model -­‐ overall evaluation from combined attitudes E. Attitude Towards Objects (ATO Model) -­‐ attitudes are made up of attitudes from all attributes -­‐ Ao= Σ(bi)(e i -­‐ A= overall attitude / Σ= sum of all b(e)’s / b= beliefs about an attribute / e= evaluation of attributes 1. beliefs – VARY across brands 2. evaluations – do NOT VARY across brands F. Compensatory Model -­‐ decisions are compensatory or non-­‐compensatory -­‐ high ratings on one attribute can makeup for low ratings on another o it “compensates” for the bad o ATO model is compensatory G. Attitude Behavior Consistency H. relationship between an attitude toward an object and the behavior towards that object (FIG 7.4) I. Change in Attitudes: 4 Theories 1. ATO Model -­‐ changes in beliefs/evaluations can affect our attitude -­‐ positives and negatives of an attritube 2. Balance Theory -­‐ people want to be consistent in their thoughts (FIG 7.6) 3. Elaboration Likelihood Model -­‐ consumers process messages in 2 ways: o CENTRAL ROUTE – highly involved; really care about message o PERIPHERAL ROUTE – low involvement; don’t really care -­‐ 2 cues IN the message: o CENTRAL cues – info about the quality of the product o PERIPHERAL cues – info UNRELATED to the product 4. Social Judgment Theory (FIG 7.7) II. CHAPTER 8 – GROUP & INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE A. group influence-­‐ the ways group members influence attitudes B. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GROUP: -­‐ share common goals/interests -­‐ communicate with and influence one another -­‐ view themselves as members of common social unit -­‐ IN group defined by NOT being OUT group C. group types: PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ASPIRATIONAL, DISSOCIATIVE D. aspirational groups-­‐ group in which one desires to become a member dissociative groups-­‐ group in which one does NOT want to belong E. social power-­‐ ability of individual/group to influence the actions of others 1. referent power 2. legitimate power 3. expert power 4. reward power 5. coercive power F. Group Influence on PRODUCT SELECTION (FIG 8.2) -­‐ product necessity VS. consumption setting -­‐ public necessity, public luxury, private necessity, private luxury G. Word of Mouth (WOM) -­‐ positive or negative -­‐ fake WOM (ex: paid/phony reviews) -­‐ amplified WOM (ex: being sent free products to share about) -­‐ influence of social media III. CHAPTER 9 – CONSUMER CULTURE A. what does culture do -­‐ gives meaning to objects -­‐ gives meaning to activities -­‐ facilitates communication B. cultural norms-­‐ rules that specify what is or is NOT appropriate behavior in a situation within a given culture C. Dimensions of Cultural Values 1. Core Societal Values (CSV) – (TABLE 9.4) -­‐ individualism – value self, personal achievement o OPPOSITE: collectivistic culture -­‐ masculinity – value assertiveness and control o OPPOSITE: feminine culture -­‐ power distance – emphasize social status (high power) o OPPOSITE: low power distance -­‐ uncertainty avoidance – uncomfortable with unknown and high risk o OPPOSITE: low uncertainty avoidance -­‐ long term orientation – o OPPOSITE: short term orientation D. glocalization – idea that market strategy may be global but the implementation of that strategy at the marketing tactics level should be local (ex: McDonald’s menu varies from country to country/culture to culture) IV. CHAPTER 10 – MICROCULTURES A. microcultures – group of people who share similar values and tastes that are subsumed within a larger culture 1. role conflict-­‐ consumer experience conflicting expectations based on cultural expectations 2. divergence-­‐ consumers choose membership in microcultures in order to stand out or define themselves B. FACTORS OF MICROCULTURES: 1. geography 2. age/generations a) cohort-­‐ group of people who have lived the same major experiences, which end up shaping their core values -­‐ Greatest Gen: before 1928 – hard work, self sacrifice, conformity -­‐ Silent Gen: 1928-­‐45 – civic duty, strong faith in gov’t, frugal -­‐ Baby Boomers: 1945-­‐65 – suburbia, self absorbed, stressed -­‐ Gen X: 1965-­‐80 – latch key kids, cynicism, practical -­‐ Millennials: 1980-­‐95 – embrace technology, optimism, econ. hardships -­‐ Gen Z: 1995-­‐2013 – social media, technology, accepting diversity V. CHAPTER 11 – CONSUMERS IN SITUATIONS A. Time 1. Time pressure-­‐ causes the use of HEURISTICS-­‐ mental shortcuts 2. Time of day a) circadian cycle-­‐ daily energy cycle based on sleeping and waking times 3. Time of year a) advertiming-­‐ places ads/promotion strategically at certain times of the day/year B. Construal Level Theory 1. proximal event-­‐ will happen soon; viewed concretely 2. distal event-­‐ won’t happen for a long time; viewed discretely (ex: volunteering 3 mo. from now VS. the day before C. Atmospherics 1. fit-­‐ how appropriate the elements are to the environment 2. congruity-­‐ consistency of elements with each other 3. ELEMENTS: a) odor -­‐ olfactory b) music – fast vs. slow; secular vs. religious c) color – cool vs. warm d) merchandising – signage, placement e) social setting – crowdage (nonlinear effect) D. Types of Shopping 1. acquisitional – oriented toward a specific, intended purchase 2. epistemic – acquiring knowledge about a product 3. experiential 4. impulsiveness – spontaneous; diminished regard for consequences -­‐ self regulation-­‐ inhibiting situational influences from interfering with intentions o action oriented VS state oriented E. IMPULSIVE vs UNPLANNED vs COMPULSIVE 1. impulsive-­‐ spontaneous; hedonic; self-­‐fulfillment 2. unplanned-­‐ spontaneous; utilitarian 3. compulsive-­‐ compulsive buying disorder; harmful/uncontrollable; chronic depression

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Chapter 32, Problem 32.85 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics
Edition: 4
Author: Douglas C. Giancoli
ISBN: 9780131495081

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The end faces of a cylindrical glass rod (n = 1.51)