(II) The index of refraction, n, of crown flint glass atdifferent wavelengths (A) of light are given in the Tablebelow. 1.50586546.11.51978365.01.54251312.51.5600Make a graph of n versus A. The variation in index ofrefraction with wavelength is given by the Cauchy equationn = A + B /A2. Make another graph of n versus 1 /A 2 anddetermine the constants A and B for the glass by fitting thedata with a straight line.
Week 2 Developmental Psychology Notes 8/31/15 Psych Class Notes Development Psychology: focuses more on humans then plain psychology, looks at environment (context historical period), personal characteristics (AGE, gender, sex, class, race), Past experiences VS Genetics (Nature VS Nurture). Describe: establish norms of behavior Explain: developmental theories Predict: identify who is at risk Modify: advise parents, teachers, etc. ** Know what’s true before attempting to explain it** Theories of Development: explanations: guide predictions, behaviors, suggest hypotheses grand theories: general acceptance in the field, evidence (9 theories on handout) specific theories: language and moral reasoning, EX: effects of media violence **theory to use DEPENDS!** Early Philosophical Views: original sin: (Middle Ages) children are born bad, society (parents) must train innate goodness: (Rousseau) children are born good, allow them freedom to flourish tabula rasa: (John Locke) children are born with a “blank slate,” how they turn out is entirely due to their environment Stage Theories: (3 of the 9 on handout) Freud, Erikson and Piaget • emphasize qualitative change not quantitive change • everyone goes through the same stages in same order • move from stage to stage around the same age • AGE is a major predictor psychoanalytic: emphasize development of personality through a series of stages heavily based on emotions and the importance of past experiences id: “devil on shoulder” driven by desire to receive pleasure ego: reality superego: conscious/morality “angel on shoulder” cohort: people born at about the same time in history EX. Digital Natives VS Digital Immigrants Theories of Development Nature VS Nurture: The debate in what percentages does genetics play a part in development vs the environment in which we grow theory: set of ideas to help explain a phenomena and make predictions hypothesis: where specific assertions and predictions can be tested Psychoanalytic Theories: focuses on the unconscious mind, heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic Frued’s Theory: *psychoanalysis* study of the unconscious mind Five Stages of Psychosexual Development 1. Oral Stage (Birth - 1 1/2 years) infant’s pleasure centers on the mouth rooting reflex: automatically turn the face toward the stimulus and make sucking (rooting) motions with the mouth when the cheek or lip is touched. 2. Anal Stage (1 1/2 years - 3 years) child’s pleasure focuses on the anus (potty training years) 3. Phallic Stage (3 - 6 years) child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals 4. Latency Stage (6 - puberty) child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills (friends more with same sex peers, shy away from opposite sex) 5. Genital Stage (puberty onward) sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family Erik Erikson’s Theory: Thought we developed in psychosocial rather than psychosexual 8 Stages of Development 1. Trust VS Mistrust (Infancy) sets stage for lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place 2. Autonomy VS Shame/Doubt (1 - 3 years) Toddlers realize that they have ability to be independent (autonomy). But if they are restrained too much or pushed t oo much they are likely to develop a sense of shame/doubt. 3. Initiative VS Guilt (Preschool) Child realizes that are active and have a purpose in the world, but could make them anxious to resort to irresponsibility where guilt arises 4. Industry VS Inferiority (Elementary School) gaining knowledge & skill vs feeling of incompetence 5. Identity VS Identity Confusion (Adolescence) 6. Intimacy VS Isolation (Early Adulthood) building healthy relationships or not 7. Generatively VS Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) concern for helping the younger generation develop & lead, or looking back and feeling like they haven’t done anything for the following generation 8. Integrity VS Despair reflection on life and if they are satisfied or not Cognitive Theories: while psychoanalytic theories stress the unconscious, cognitive emphasize conscious thoughts Piaget’s Theory: 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth - 2 years) infants construct understanding of world through sensory experiences 2. Pre-operational Stage (2 - 7 years) From sensory to physical action (words, images and drawings). 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 - 11 years) child can reason logically about specific and c oncrete examples 4. Format Operational Stage (11 +) person can think of ideal circumstances, possibilities, and can develop hypotheses Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: culture and social interaction guide cognitive development learning through inventions of society interaction with skilled adults ^ cognitive development information processing theory: individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Processes of memory and thinking are central. Information Processing Theory: • thinking, attention, memory • computer model • meta-cognition (thinking about thinking) • “theory of mind” • no specific stages, tracks changes with age quantized change Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories: behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: operant conditioning: consequences of a behavior produce changes in a probability of the behavior’s recurrence. rewarding stimulus VS punishing stimulus Badura’s Social Cognitive Theory: social cognitive theory: holds that behavior, environment and person/cognition factors are the key factors in development observation learning: (imitation or modeling) learning occurs through observing what others do Ethological Theory: Ethology: study of behavior of animals in their natural habitat Lorenz’s Research with Greylag Geese: imprinting: rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen critical period: a specific time perio d in which we learn certain things Ecological Theory: emphasizes environmental factors Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory: 5 Environmental Systems: microsystem: setting in which an individual lives mesosystem: reations between microsystems or connections between contexts EX. relations between family experience to school experiences exosystem: links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context. EX. a husband’s or child’s experience at home might be influenced by a mother’s experience at work macrosystem: the culture in which individual’s live chronosystem: the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course as well as sociohistorical circumstances Eclectic Theoretical Orientation: An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories variables: factors that varies (has 2 or more levels/categories) dependent variable: effects, outcomes independent variable: causes, influences ***Why would a 15 year old girl smoke cigarettes AGE is a major IV in developmental psychology operationalize: how are we going to measure each one Research in Life-Span Development Where should we make our observations • laboratory • everyday world laboratory: a controlled setting in which research takes place Naturalistic observation: observing behavior in real world settings and making no effect to manipulate or contro l the situation standardized test: test given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring case study: in-depth examination of an individual descriptive research: aims to observe and record behavior correlational research: focuses on describing the strength of the relation between two or more events of characteristics correlational coefficient: a number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables experiment: carefully regulated procedure i n which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. control group: a comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible except for the manipulate d factor (independent variable) random assignment: decides who will be placed in the control or experimental group cross:sectional approach: research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time longitudinal approach: research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. cohort effects: effects that are due to a subject’s time of birth or generation but not age