In Example 13.5 (Section 13.3) we ignored the gravitational effects of the moon on a spacecraft en route from the earth to the moon. In fact, we must include the gravitational potential energy due to the moon as well. For this problem, you can ignore the motion of the earth and moon. (a) If the moon has radius find the total gravitational potential energy of the particle–earth and particle–moon systems when a particle with mass m is between the earth and the moon, and a distance r from the center of the earth. Take the gravitational potential energy to be zero when the objects are far from each other. (b) There is a point along a line between the earth and the moon where the net gravitational force is zero. Use the expression derived in part (a) and numerical values from Appendix F to find the distance of this point from the center of the earth. With what speed must a spacecraft be launched from the surface of the earth just barely to reach this point? (c) If a spacecraft were launched from the earth’s surface toward the moon with an initial speed of with what speed would it impact the moon?

Geology 102- Lecture 2 Notes History of Geology and Paleontology ● Earliest Geological Studies ○ Ores, minerals, etc. ○ Age of the Earth ○ Fossilization ○ Climate Change ● Aristotle ○ 384- 322 BCE ○ Greek philosopher ○ The surface of the Earth was not set, changed through time ○ Changes were often slow ● Pliny the Elder ○ 23-79 ○ Roman naturalist and philosopher ○ Recorded observations and classifications of a variety of ores and minerals ○ Built on earlier Greek classifications ○ Described minerals based on hardness, crystal structure ○ Origins of mineralogy and crystallography ● 10th and 11th century ○ Natural hi