Units and Measurement (Section)
(a) A sample of tetrachloroethylene, a liquid used in dry cleaning that is being phased out because of its potential to cause cancer, has a mass of 40.55 g and a volume of 25.0 ml
at 25 °C. What is its density at this temperature? Will tetrachloroethylene float on water? (Materials that are less dense than water will float.) (b) Carbon dioxide (C02) is a gas at room temperature and pressure. However, carbon dioxide can be put under pressure to become a ‘supercritical fluid' that is a much safer dry-cleaning agent than tetrachloroethylene. At a certain pressure, the density of supercritical C02 is 0.469 g/cm3. What is the mass of a 25.0-mL sample of supercritical C02 at this pressure?
Psych Week 10 notes: (4/4, 4/6, 4/8) Developmental Psychology - focuses on mapping change in physical, cognitive, social/emotional development across the life span and understanding the forces that produce or influence these changes. I. Infancy using Caregivers as a Base of Growth. -attachment- an intense emotional bond that develops between two individuals A. Attachment to Caregivers: a. Harry Harlow’s monkey experiment: i. Independent variables: wire vs cloth, source of food and appearance of the model’s face ii.Lab- observation- test iii.Dependent Variables: the clinging time and destination (which model) that the baby monkey goes to when the monkey is frightened. iv. Findings: that regardless which surrogate mother with the mild, the baby monkey more than often stayed with the soft surrogate model. 1. Contact Comfort -this provides psychological, social, and emotional closeness (theory: that attachment is just for an infant’s physical needs) b. Strange-Situation Test (see book): to assess the attachment systematically by Mary Ainsworth i. Test: child and caregiver in an unknown play room (lab). Mother and child play, and then the mother leaves- >observe what reactions the child has. (Fear induced and test the infant’s reactions) ii.Hypothesis: child becomes securely attached to mothers who provide regular contact comfort-> leading to positive effects later in life iii.Classifications: 1. Securely attached: kids move confidently around the room, playing with the toys with caregiver 2. Avoidant attachment: child avoids the mother’s acts to entertain the child, is upset when the mother leaves, but doesn’t seems at all interested in her when she returns for the child. 3. Anxious attachment: continuously frets and cries despite the mother’s attempts to comfort the child. B. Cross Cultural Differences: a. Caregiving in hunter gather societies: i. Much more of collectivistic vs individualistic. ii. Where there is much more dependence on a group and on group orientation iii.Where many infants are usually born with independence but are raised to be dependent on others due to this collectivistic culture. iv. Co sleeping is common with newborn and caregiver b. Issues with Indulgence: i. By sleeping with the child ->child may become demanding ii. High indulgence of infants desires and integration into society -> long lasting emotional bonds iii.This security to a caregiver can be apparent in lives as a teen or adolescence with romantic partners or friends Interdependence: strong feelings of obligation and loyalty to certain people C. Parenting Styles: a. The many ways in which parents interact with their offspring i. Degree of warmth ii. Degree of control D.Disciplinary Styles: a. Authoritarian: parents strongly value obedience for their own sake b. Authoritative: parents are less concerned with obedience for its own sake, more concerned that children learn and abide big rules c. Permissive: parents most tolerant of child’s disruptive actions E. Attachment continued: a. Internal working model-concept about relationships- model first formed around the infant and caregiver relationship b. Can carry it forward into subsequent relationships c. Are largely based on perception d. Model can and does change i. Risk for future insecurity: anger, bitterness, hostility ii. Great potential for change: understanding objectivity-> motivation for change --As humans we have multiple attachments