Dimensional Analysis (Section)
(a) A bumblebee flies with a ground speed of 15.2 m/s. Calculate its speed in km/hr. (b) The lung capacity of the blue whale is 5.0 * 103 L. Convert this volume into gallons, (c) The Statue of Liberty is 151 ft tall. Calculate its height in meters, (d) Bamboo can grow up to 60.0 cm/day. Convert this growth rate into inches per hour.
Psych 101 Learning Learning: Associative Learning Classical conditioning: Associate different stimuli we do not control and respond automatically Ian Pavlov (Russia, studying digestion) Dog started salivating to machine sound instead of food) Stimulus response (1 in psychology) Stimulus requires something to happen Conditioned= learned (dog becomes afraid of metronome bc its associated with the shock) Unconditioned= unlearned—(unconditioned response is just how we’re built) US: unconditioned stimuli (food) UR: unconditioned response (response to food) NS: neutral stimuli (bell) CS: condition stimuli (bel leading to salvation, you learn) CR: conditioned response (salvation/responding to the bell) Conditioning: repeated pairing of US with NS Phobias fetishes, etc. are formed by this Operant conditioning: Associate our own behaviors that act on our environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli (operant behaviors) with their consequences Acquisition: the initial learning of an association Half a second usually works well as time elapsed between NS and US If US appeared before the NS conditioning would likely not occur Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive because it helps humans and other animals prepare for good or bad events—if good or bad event already occurred, the NS/CS will NOT help the animal prepare The NS becomes a CS after signaling an important biological event Objects, smells, and sights associated with sexual pleasure can become conditioned stimuli for sexual arousal Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce Extinction: the diminished responding that occurs when the CS no longer signals an impending US Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of (weakened) CR after a pause/delay— this suggests extinction just suppresses the CR rather than eliminating it Positive reinforcement: strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response Negative reinforcement: strengthens a response by reducing or removing something negative—it is not a punishment, it removes punishing Reinforcers: Primary: biologically satisfying (thirst, hunger, sex, etc.) Secondary: associate with primary things (money, smells, etc.) Reinforcement increases a behavior…Punishment does the opposite Punishment: any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior Punishment tells you what not to do reinforcement tells you what to do Positive/Negative +: to add something to the environment -: taking something away from the environment + - Give texting Take away R vacuuming Give a Take away P spanking texting Other examples: Negative Reinforcement: st 1 grader doesn’t like school, gets stomach ache and can go home later fakes stomach ache to go home Taking aspirin to get rid of headache *bribes usually increase the behavior Target behavior: the behavior your targeting to change *Skinner: take away reinforcement if you want behavior to go away (if you give, they do that behavior next time when they want) Temper tantrum: Shaping Acquisition: learning phase Extinction: getting rid of the association Generalization: treat similar stimuli as same Discrimination: tell the difference between similar stimuli Reinforcement Schedules: - Continuous: get a reward every response (ex. fixed ratio) - Ratio (amount): reward every so many (x) responses (free coffee every x time) - Interval (time): reward every so often (on average) - Fixed-ratio: o Set # of responses o Predictable organism can easily figure out and learn pretty fast o Example: paid on every iphone you make (commission), free flight every x number of flights - Variable-ratio (Intermittent) o No set # of responses but every so responses o Slot machines o Bug someone until they give up o Never know if the next one may pay of ADDICTING - Fixed-interval (scalloped) o A specific time of responses (set time) o Example: boss walks around at 3, work hardest at that time o Increase behavior at test time (cramming) - Variable-interval o No set time of happenings or responses o Can’t predict when it’s going to happen o Constant learning over time (surprise quizzes) o Example: waiting for a post on Facebook (random) Watson Thinks we can be trained to be anything (regardless of genetics, age, ancestors, etc.) Generalization: moving learning (fear, etc.) to all things instead of one (if scared of bunny, then scared of cat, squirrel, dog, etc.) B.F. Skinner (behaviorism) (Thorndike’s Law of Effect) Insisted external influences (not internal thoughts and feelings) shape behavior External consequences already haphazardly control people’s behavior Operant conditioning* Behavior is guided by its consequences—can increase animal’s behavior (reinforcement) or decrease (punishment) Who determines whether is reinforcement/punishment… the organism! Examples in real life: School: o Envisioned a day when teaching machines and textbooks would shape learning in small steps—revolutionize education o Computers were Skinner’s final hope o “Students must be told immediately whether what they do is right or wrong, and when right, they must be directed to the step to be taken next” o Today’s interactive software, web-based learning, and online testing bring us closer to achieving Skinner’s ideal Sports: o Reinforcing small successes and then gradually increasing the challenge o Those trained by this behavioral method have shown faster skilled improvement Work: o Organizations have invited employees to share the risks and rewards of company ownership o Some have focused on reinforcing a job well done o Rewards are most likely to increase productivity if the desired performance is well defined and achievable o Message for managers: reward specific achievable behaviors, not vaguely defined “merit” o Reinforcement should be immediate o “How much richer would the whole world be if the reinforcers in daily life were more effectively contingent on productive work” (Skinner) Home: o Parents should remember basic rule of shaping: notice people doing something right and affirm them for doing it o Target a specific behavior, reward it, and watch it increase o For ourselves: we can reinforce our own desired behaviors and extinguish undesired ones State your goal in measurable terms, and announce it Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior Reinforce your desired behavior Reduce the rewards gradually An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology—each species’ predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival (environments are not the whole story) Learning by Observation: - Social Learning: watching people do stuff - Attention: see consequences and if one likes them, then they will do the action as well - Motivation: has to be motivated, has to want to pay attention in order to watch (memory) and then replicate - Have to store watched action in memory - Have to be motivated to then replicate it at the right time - Have to have ability to replicate action - Cognition is certainly a factor in observational learning (learn without direct experience, by watching and imitating) - Modeling: observing and imitating others - Albert Bandura (pioneering researcher for observational learning) - Experiment: Bobo doll (adult model hit, kicked, threw the doll (did specific things)—the kids that observed this model were more likely to lash out at the doll (similarly to model) when they played with it) (they replicated model’s action) - “By watching a model, we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment, and we learn to anticipate a behavior’s consequence in situations like those we are observing” - When we identity with someone, we experience their outcomes vicariously (fMRI scans show when observing a specific situation our own brain’s system of that particular area activates, example: when watching someone receive a reward (especially if we like them) our reward system lights up) (mirrors neurons) - Mirror neurons: watching someone do something brain lights up like they’re doing it - Mirror neurons provide a neural basis for everyday imitation and observational learning