A 25.0-cm long cylindrical glass tube, sealed at one end, is filled with ethanol. The mass of ethanol needed to fill the tube is found to be 45.23 g. The density of ethanol is 0.789 g/ml. Calculate the inner diameter of the tube in centimeters.
Juvenile Justice System Exam #3 (Chapters 7-10) Ch 7: Juvenile Justice Procedures Stationhouse Adjustment- police officer negotiates a settlement with the youth and parents instead of filing a petition. Preliminary Conference- probation officer negotiates a settlement with the youth and parents instead of filing a petition. A juvenile who is alleged to be delinquent has the following rights: Notice of the charge and time to prepare, counsel (+ guardian ad litem), confront and cross- examine witnesses, and remain silent in court. 4 Amendment- the right of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures. Pretrial Proceedings- adjudication process begins with some sort of hearing. Bail- some jurisdictions permit bail, whereas others do not on the grounds that the juvenile has not been charged with a crime, and, therefore, is not entitled to bail. A juvenile can be taken into custody without a warrant if the law enforcement officer reasonably believes the juvenile to be delinquent, in need of supervision, dependent, abused, or neglected. Adjudicatory Hearing- the fact-finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition. Disposition- equivalent of sentencing for adult offenders, but is aimed at rehabilitation rather than retribution. Beyond a reasonable doubt- standard of evidence required to find a youth delinquent. Clear and convincing evidence- standard of evidence to determine if juvenile is in need of treatment or rehabilitation. Proceedings concerning juveniles officially begin with the filing of a petition alleging that a juvenile is delinquent. Delinquency petitions must contain sufficient factual details to inform the juvenile of the nature of the offense leading to allegations of delinquency. Ch 8: Juveniles and the Police Police Discretion- individual judgment concerning the type of action to take. Legal factors influencing officer discretion: seriousness of offense, frequency of offense, prior/current involvement in juvenile system. Extra-legal factors: race, gender, social class. Race makes a difference at all stages of the juvenile process but may be most important at the initial point of contact with police. Unofficial Procedures- juvenile card and station house adjustment. Official Procedures- mandated reporting, search and seizure, self-incrimination. Search and seizure and self-incrimination both apply the same to juveniles as adults. Preliminary report- dates are important for history and establishing timelines, find out what instrument of abuse and cover elements of crime, listen to what the children say. Police Involvement Programs- DARE, GREAT, Olweus Program, Youth Focused Community Policing (YFCP), Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program (SHOCAP). Ch 9: Key Figures in Juvenile Court Proceedings Juvenile Prosecutor- brings state’s cases against the juvenile, has the most power, decides whether a case will go to court, most waiver decisions, the nature of the petition, and the disposition of the case after adjudication. Defense Attorney- two types- private counsel- either retained or appoint by the court and court appointed counsel- full-time salary employees. Guardian at Litem- guardian is unable to act on child’s behalf, accompany child. 6 Amendment- the right to counsel. Juvenile Court Judge- elected or appointed judge who presides over juvenile cases and whose decisions can only be reviewed by a judge of a higher court. Plea Bargaining- negotiations between prosecutor and defense attorney to find best disposition for case while saving time and money on court proceedings. Juvenile Probation Officer- supervises youth allowed to remain in community. Role identity confusion- the problem that occurs when one job has many different and competing roles and expectations. Court appointed special advocates (CASA) - usually volunteers who supply the court with alternatives in placement focusing on best interest of child. Ch 10: Prevention and Diversion Programs Preadjudication Intervention- to modify offensive behavior after the fact by intervening prior to adjudication Postadjudication Intervention- to intervene after the juvenile has been adjudicated Primary Prevention- preventing illegal acts among all juveniles by alleviating social conditions related to offending Secondary Prevention- identifies those at high-risk and attempts to intervene early Tertiary Prevention- prevention of additional delinquent acts Pure Diversion- referrals to agencies outside of juvenile justice prior to juvenile entering the system Secondary Diversion- suspends or terminates juvenile justice processing in favor of release or referrals to alternative services Net Widening- offenders that would be fined or subject to a probation order are now subject to a conditional sentence. (Pure diversion) Federal programs are limited. Restorative justice- philosophy is to make offender recognize how his/her crime affects others and to make them more responsible for their actions. Faith-based initiatives- religious organizations attempts to provide programs while injecting religious dogma. Children and family services- programs provided to help parents and children cope, recover, and learn strategies to aide them in the future in handling the particular situation. Scared Straight Program- it was shown to offer a simple but highly effective way of deterring juvenile delinquency and preventing juveniles from entering the adult system. The proportion of child abuse and/or neglect cases handled unofficially is unknown.