A sinusoidally varying driving force is applied to a damped harmonic oscillator of force constant ?k and mass ?m?. If the damping constant has a value ?b?1. the amplitude is ? ?1 when the driving angular frequency equals . In terms of ?A?1, what is the amplitude for the same driving frequency and the same driving force amplitude ?F?max, if the damping constant is (a) 3?b?1 and (b) ?b?1/2?
Infancy 3260 Student Study Guide EXAM 2 Chapter 5 Understand newborn states of arousal and why states are important Sleeping (quiet sleep, active sleep, drowsiness) and waking (quiet alert, active alert, crying). Important because the body needs periods of tranquility and rest to consolidate resources for growth. Attention to environment depends on stressfree state, regulates interactions between infant and caregiver. How much time do newborns spend sleeping 1617 hours per day What are some benefits of cosleeping No longterm risks or benefits in cosleeping relatively rare in the world today Norm in many cultures What is the most common reason for cosleeping Breast feeding Which cultures favor independent sleeping Western (US) What is the difference between an orienting response and a defensive response Toward moderate stimulus, away from sharp and intense stimulus Does the frequency of crying increase or decrease in the first two months Increase Do babies have different types of crying at this stage Yes different sounds and body responses What is colic and what appears to be its cause Inconsolable crying for at least 3 hours per day for at least 3 days per week. No official cause What are the effects of crying on adults Adult perceive crying as an index of distress. Child abusers show greater arousal and more annoyance at cries than nonabusers What are the best ways to soothe a crying baby Nonnutritive sucking, swaddling, massage, rocking, sound What is a newborn reflex Extremely important for orienting the infant and protecting the infant Understand newborn reflexes and how they change as the infant ages. Be able to identify the 8 newborn reflexes described in class. MORO occurs when infants and trunk are allowed to drop back 30 degrees when the infant is in a slightly raised position. Arms fan out hands outstretched legs extend and flex. o Palmer grasp occurs when the infants palm is touched near the base of the fingers, hand closes into a tight fist. o Plantar grasp reflex, occurs when area below the toes is touched o Babinski reflex elicited by stroking the bottom on the foot, causes toes to flare out o Rooting reflex important in feeding. When the cheek is touched the babies head will turn and the mouth will open o Sucking reflex o Tonic neck reflex position assumed by newborns when in a supine position (quarter back) o Stepping reflex when infants are held upright, (disappears) What does the term asynchronous growth mean Different places at different speeds Know the terms cephalocaudal development and proximodistal development. Head first, inside to outside Describe the newborn’s visual perception (i.e., what does their tracking look like their scanning ability) 20/500 visions. Blurry vision but can see colors. Tacking of moving objects is jerky and they only follow slowly moving objects. Oculomotor skills. Scanning (look more around the outside and eyes and less at details) how does vision change in the first six months Develops to 20/20 by 6 months. Develop Oculomotor control and depth perception What do newborns like to look at Objects with clearly marked edges and outlines, circular patterns and external contours of a figure. Prefer faces over other objects, more attractive faces, and faces that are looking at them How well developed is the newborn’s auditory perception More mature than visual system. Can hear sounds from a whisper to normal conversation but only loud sounds can awaken them What sounds do newborns prefer listening to Singing infantdirected song. Mothers voice. Prefer sounds in the middle range, higher pitch over lower pitch, Describe the newborn’s ability to taste, smell, and touch. 4 basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) can differentiate between odors and prefer pleasant odors. Many reflexes are stimulated by touch and changes in behavior in response to tactile stimulation. Can newborns feel pain Yes how do we know Facial expressions what does this mean in terms of medical procedures What are two ways in which infants at this stage can learn (Hint: 2 types of conditioning) classical and operant conditioning What is habituation Boredom Understand the newborn’s ability to imitate others. May be a way of relating to people. Evidence of self awareness (distinguish own movement form the movements of others.) What emotions do newborns appear to experience Distress, contentment, disgust, interest and surprise. What is father’s role with newborns How does it differ from mother’s role More direct infant care Do firstborns have different interactions with their mothers than laterborns Might spend more time with firstborns because they are anxious and not as experienced Chapter 6 What changes are seen in growth and height the first six months Rapid growth. 1.5 times the height and 2 times weight. What changes in motor development are parents likely to see in the infant’s first 5 months Control of posture, locomotion, movement of hands and arms In addition to the infant’s ability level, what two factors affect an infant’s ability to perform a motor skill at this stage Difficulty of task and supports they have within the environment What types of supports and resources can parents provide to aid in their infant’s motor development Are there cultural differences in the types of supports that parents provide for their infants Holding infants in postures that are conductive to execution. o In Mali mother put babies through workout (training in sitting and standing, muscle stretching) – many African babies have advanced motor coordination o Navaho infants spend hours strapped tightly to cradle boards (slower motor development) How does visual perception change in the first 5 months Begin to recognize and prefer meaningful patterned stimuli. Can perceive whole patterns. Can differentiate between familiar faces, can recognize a smile. What do infants like to look at Prefer faces from their own ethnic racial groups How do infants perceive moving objects Whole units. Can detect complex patterns of motion. What do infants like to listen to Mother’s voice, they prefer speech to nonspeech sounds. Detect different emotions through speech. Do infants like music Yes. At 4 moths and can remember songs. Understand the term cross modal perception integrate info from at least 2 sources How does speed of habituation change with age Improve in speed of info processing. Parents that stimulate ability to focus have children who habituate faster. What does the statement mean “speed of habituation may be used as an early index of cognitive differences.” Good predictor over of period of 4 – 5 months but not over longer terms. Do infants have short term and longterm memory From birth have shortterm memories. By 3 moths longterm memory (up to 2 weeks) Very specific to situation I who initial learning occurs. Remember WHOLE situations (Review mobile experiments) What is “infantile amnesia” don’t remember experiences as infants What factors can influence longterm memory Increased memory with continued non verbal reminders and stable environment Define a primary circular reaction repetitive movement focus on own actions What emotional expressions do infants display by age 4 months Smiling in faceface interaction. Increased emotional regulation (decrease crying, increased ability to easily shift gaze, increase mastery of smiling, increase sensorimotor skills, adult partner) DISTRESS ANGER AND WARINESS Describe the development of smiling. Development of smiling during face to face interactions (25 months) multiple types of smiles by 3 months, What makes a Duchenne smile different Genuinely happy, eye creases and when is it likely to occur During mother infant faceface play when the infant is held upright and is able to see the mother smiling and talking When do infants begin cooing How might this development affect parentinfant interaction After 2 months. Nondistress vocalization. What factors contribute to emotional regulation in infants at 25 months Sensorimotor skills, caregivers List effects of infants on adult behavior. How do we act differently toward infants Change voice and intonation; move more precisely and more slowly. Exaggeration. Rhythm and repetition. Matching and attunement Some infants are less expressive than others. Why might this be How should parents and others respond to these infants Less expressive infants tend to be more aroused by stimulation. Have higher heart raters, higher cortisol and high muscle tensions. Inhibited. Review the examples of cultural differences in adult behavior toward infants attachment parenting is common among huntergather cultures. In WEST try to schedule babies and encourage independence. In JAPAN and NATIVE AMERICAN societies infants are precious and close to god not influenced by adults until they begin to make some of their own initiative. Describe the stillface experiment. Given the findings from the experiment, how do you think this relates to the topic of neglect More distress by stillface then ignoring What are the effects of maternal depression and stress on infants Infants of depressed mothers are more fussy, more likely to show negative facial expression, low level of physical activity and more withdrawn. Understand four basic features of the ecological self (identify these terms by recognition) self history (having a past), self coherence (whole physical entity), self agency (capable of generating own actions), self affectivity (having inner emotional feelings to specific experiences) Be able to list at least 3 problems that new parents must address. Lack of sleep, increased stress, change to family lifestyle and marital relationship and additional costs of raising a child Discuss predictors of success in the transition to parenthood o The adult’s relationship with their own parents, prior experience with childcare, selfesteem, and belief in selfefficacy as a parent. Readiness to have a child. o The martial relationship, other family member, the amount of available social support, job and income satisfaction. Chapter 7 What changes in physical and motor development are seen in the 6 to 9 month period Independent sitting and supported standing. Rolling over and crawling. By 9 months infants can take a few steps while holding furniture and pick on small objects. Understand development of hand preference linked to brain hemispheres. Begin to show hand preference around 2 months (visually guided reaching) permanent hand preferences do nd not emerge until the 2 year. What did the moving box experiment demonstrate Optic flow visual information is more important than mechanical for balance in young infants. Infants will fall in the direction the wall seems to be moving. What perceptual developments do 6 to 9monthold infants experience Can infer objects properties and depth from visual cues alone. “See” three dimensions when shown, objects in 2d. haptic perception. Can recognize differences in simple melodies. Can use crossmodal perfect to infer information. Leads to preferences for certain objects over others. When should children be introduced to solid foods After 6 months. Coincides with decline in fetal iron storage, teeth budding and increase ability to grasp. Why should parents avoid introducing foods too early Associated with food allergies. How can parents help infants learn to eat appropriately One food at a time. Healthy habits, don’t rush mealtime, and acknowledge that it is a time for play and socializing What is haptic perception Perception through touch Understand concepts of primary circular reactions and secondary circular reactions. Repeat actions that by chance produce some effect on the objects/ people in environment. More goal orientated What is object permanence Still exists when out of side how might the development of object permanence affect the infant’s response to mommy leaving Development of separation anxiety What negative emotions are likely to develop in the 6 to 9 month period Anger (when cannot succeed at being a causal agent. Separation distress. Wariness (adaptive) What are some positive emotions infants are likely to display More complex smiling’s what do they laugh at Jokes, lightly arousing stimuli, loud noise/ falling Are 6 to 9month old infants able to “read” facial expressions Poorly which expression/s is the infant most likely to respond to appropriately Smile What is infant temperament A persistent pattern of emotion and emotion regulation in the infant’s relationship to people and things in the environment What are some issues researchers have in studying this area Difficult to measure in reliable and valid manner Parents ratings often vary, how stable is infant temperament Relatively stable (but effected by experiences) what factors influence it Genetics, parents and environment What changes are seen in speech and language development at this age Babbling begins after 6 months (accompanied by right hand and arm movement—both connected to left brain) babbling is not talking—learning music than words. Review the concept of loss of perceptual sensitivity for languages, and why do we think this happens Children lose ability to distinguish between sounds contrast because of synaptic pruning Give examples of cultural differences in parentinfant relationships. In warm counties infants tend to be carried and remain in close physical contact (breast fed longer) what are the differences in parenting/play/teaching styles in industrialized communities and nontechnical communities In industrial society parents will be to interpret intentions, and help infant carry out intended act and create new intentions. In nontechnical communities adult are more directive and ritualistic Why might these differences exist Fits needs of culture. Understand how infants develop in their sense of self – differentiate ecological self o Ask for help o Take initiative o Clowning and showing off o Demanding o Hiding and escaping What are the effects of maternal employment on infants and parents Not whether she works but whether she has job satisfaction. Boys are affected more what factors might mediate these effects Whether mothers work by choice or necessity. Role overload How do parental leave policies vary by nation In the U.S., who is most likely to take parental leave Mother what do you think about the parental leave policies in the U.S. Not very helpful for new parents. Can’t breast feed. Encourages drug assisted childbirth so they can return to work earlier. Understand age and sex differences in nurturance toward infants (including children, parents, grandparents) interest and ability is present in both boys and girl. Even at preschool age children will alter voice and change the way they speak to a baby. Mothers tend to be more accurate in identifying the types of cry than father but both can distinguish their baby’s cry from another infants. Grandparents can be interchangeable with parents depending on their involvement. More responsive to babies than parent of adolescent or gown children who had left home. Chapter 8 What physical and motor developments are seen in 10 to 12monthold children Eat solid food, hold their own spoon, drink from a cup with both hands, have teeth to chew. Standalone and walk alone, can sit down from standing and can climb stairs by crawling. In what ways is a toddler’s gait different from an adult’s gait Many steps are unsymmetrical, have trouble balancing at about 6 month gait reaches nearly adult levels How does locomotion change/benefit the baby Involves less adult guidance. Social benefits, cognitive benefits (persist more in searching for hidden objects) What are the main threats to infant safety Car accidents (#1) swallowing small objects burns, falls Describe the emergence of infant’s intentional action. In what sensorimotor stage do we first see true intention Stage four. Describe the AnotB error seen at this age. Won’t change where they look for an object from where they first found it. How does the infant’s ability to imitate change at the end of the first year Better at imitating action they have not seen before Understand individual differences in cognition and attention infants who can sustain attention longer engage in high levels of exploratory play and score higher on test of mental and motor abilities. Describe the development of wariness, fear, enjoyment, affection, and mixed emotions anger elicited when goals have been disrupted. More purposeful and directed. Wariness and fear true fear first appears (for unexpected events—heights and unpredictable objects and movements. acquired fears. fear of strangers – general wariness or acquired for particular people) sadness accompanies a feeling of loss. AFFECTION Deeper and more lasting positive feelings. Infants display mixed emotions How does the infant’s ability to perceive emotion and intention expressed by other people develop toward the end of the first year Distinguish more expressions. Begin to use emotional info meaningfully, understand that other may have different feelings form their own. Know the terms affective sharing and social referencing. Active sharing communicating feelings to another person of confirming feeling with another person. Social reference looks to another person’s expression to help decide what to do. What is coordinated joint attention (also called Intersubjectivity) Interaction between both parent and child Why do infants’ gestures seem more intentional at this stage Look between adult and object. Will try to communicate when the initial attempted fails, point to interesting objects, and try to guide adult attention, point to objects the adult shows interest in. What changes are seen in infant perception of adult speech toward the end of the first year Begin to grasp more words and gestures. Describe how two 12montholds might play together begins to take on a dialogue, Mutual exchanges of tickling touching and laughing. Toys become more important Understand the development of selfawareness and the sense of subjective self. Why is a sense of a subjective self important (Hint: in terms of mental health) begin to know who they are in relation to other people and learn how to communicate about their needs. Define attachment. A lasting emotional tie between people such that the individual strive to maintain closeness and acts to ensure the relationship continues Understand the theories of attachment (past and present) o Behavior ecology theory innately drawn to caregiver (harlows monkeys) o Mary ainsworth attachment system and behavior Describe the Strange Situation Test o Separations and reunions between parent and child. The reunion is the important part. o Secure will be comforted o Resistant ambivalent during reunion (approaches mother than pushes her away) o Avoidant resists attempts to be comforted. Seems neutral but physiologically aroused. o Disorganized contradictory behavior. Smiles and turns away. Describe the four patterns of attachment. Be able to identify infants with each behavior pattern. Secure Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant Disorganized Discuss disorders of attachment and how these are diagnosed; can these affect brain development Reactive Attachment disorder (RAD) characterized by inhibition. (Emotionally withdrawn, persistent social or emotional disturbance, present before age 5 – not autism has developmental age of at least 9 months) Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) actively approaches and interacts with unfamiliar adults, inappropriate behavior, willingness to go off with strangers with little hesitation, behaviors not limited to impulsivity as in ADHD, at least 9 months developmental age Separation anxiety – refusal to be separates, inappropriate for child’s age, more be intense and last at least 1 month. More likely if the child is temperamentally inhibited or if parents has panic disorder CAN AFFECT BRAIN DEVELOPMENT lead to experience dependent pathologies (right limbic and prefrontal areas) Overproduction of cortisol changes in receptors for stress and fear in right hippocampus and amygdala, which become hypersensitive to fearfulness. Right prefrontal cortex becomes damaged. What are the possible causes of secure and insecure attachments at 1 year of age (3) Parents inability to create a warm and sensitive relationship with the baby. Why do infants in different cultures display different attachment patterns Equal rates of secure attachment o Depends on what the values of the culture are North America avoidant classifications are more frequent (independence is valued) Asian more insecure (not used to independence) What is importance of intergenerational transmission of psychopathology with regard to attachment Infant’s attachment styles are affected by parent’s attachment style. In what ways does attachment security in infancy predict later behavior Secure more socially competent less lonely more aware of their emotions, more securely attached at 6 to mother. Insecure may create longterm physiological imbalances in body, insecurity, peer rejection, and behavior problems Disorganized aggression, more adolescent psychopathology, more behavior problem Are infants more attached to mothers or to fathers o Few difference if both parents are present tend to choose mom but can be comforted by either parent. Prefer a parent over a stranger Do adoptive children show the same types of attachment as nonadoptive children o Yes. o Adopted parents experience higher level of stress initially o Very few difference between adoptive families with attachment o There is about the same percentage of secure infants about 70% Holds for kids adopted from orphanages but the more time spent in orphanages the more negative affects (often suffer from PTSD, and high levels of cortisol) Piaget’s Six Substages of Sensorimotor Development Substage Age Description Example Substage 1: 1 month of During this period, the various The sucking reflex causes the infant to Simple reflexes life reflexes that determine infant’s suck at anything places in its lips. interactions with the world are at the center of the cognitive life. Substage 2: From 1 to 5 At this stage infants begin to An infant might combine grabbing an Primary months recognize connections between object with sucking on it, or staring at circular behavior and its effect, and will something with touching it. reactions repeat same behavior over and over. Substage 3: From 6 to 8 During this period, infants take A child who repeatedly picks up a rattle Secondary months major strides in shifting their in her crib and shakes it in different circular cognitive horizons beyond ways to se how the sound changes is reactions themselves and begin to act on the demonstrating her ability to modify her outside world. cognitive schemes about shaking rattles. Substage 4: From 8 to 12 In this stage infants begin to use An infant will push one toy out of the Coordination months more calculated approaches to way to reach another toy this is lying, of secondary producing events, coordinating partially exposed under it. circular several schemes to generate a single reactions act. They achieve object permanence during this stage. Substage 5: From 12 to 18 Tertiary months circular reactions Substage 6: From 18 Beginnings of months to 2 thought years Lecture from Dr. Anna Breuer What is the definition of infant mental health The healthy social and emotional development of a child from birth to 3 years; and a growing field of research and practice devoted to the: Promotion of healthy social and emotional development; Prevention of mental health problems; and Treatment of the mental health problems of very young children in the context of their families Understand the Fussy Baby Network services: whom does it serve what does it do And how does it achieve this Serves parents who feel their baby o Cries a lot of is often fussy and irritable o Is unusually quiet or uninterested in them o Is struggling with sleeping and feeding o Doesn’t like to be held bathed or cuddled o Exhausts or overwhelms them Works with parents and their children to improves situation and connection Through home visits, warm line phone support parent groups and community training on supporting infant development How does colic affect family stress levels Increases stress for everyone. What are the symptoms of postpartum depression and what is the impact on mother and on child if left untreated Mood swings, crying spells, change in appetite, sleeping less (or more) feeling sad, anxious or overwhelmed, feeling angry or irritable, feeling hopeless, or worthless. Critical symptoms: delusions or odd beliefs, hallucinations, worry they may hurt baby or themselves. o Impact on mom: lack energy, trouble focusing, feeling moody, difficulty caring for self or baby less responsive to baby o Impact on baby: delays in cognitive and language development, problems with attachment, behavior problems, increased crying, risk for depressions ***Video series on Bringing Up Baby: Think about the different parenting styles examined in the videos. Be able to list some pros and cons of each approach. Trubyking scheduled, non disruptive. But not emotional little connection. Keeps family and support away from baby Doctor spock empowering, trust gut. Supports many lifestyles, encourages but doesn’t force. Allows for lots of support from family. Keeps parents up at night. Naturalistic demanding, tiring, lots of people around all the time. Good sleep, baby is constantly attached and secure.