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Visualizing ConceptsThe following diagrams | Ch 14 - 5E

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 5E Chapter 14

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 5E

Visualizing Concepts

The following diagrams represent mixtures of NO(g) and 02(g). These two substances react as follows:

2 NO(g) + O2(g)—2 NO2(g)

It has been determined experimentally that the rate is second order in NO and first order in O2. Based on this fact, which of the following mixtures will have the fastest initial rate?[Section]

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1 Plsc 101 Week Two Notes Exam 1 Material (cont.) Crop & Botanical Classification ­Crop Plant Classification ­Botanical Classification ­taxonomy­ the science of classification of organisms ­botanical ranks “for plants”: ­kingdom, division, class, order (end in “ales”), family (end in “aceae”), genus, species, variety, cultivar ­binomial nomenclature= genus and species ­ex: maize/corn (common) & Zea mays L (scientific) ­ex: Loblolly pine (common) & Pinus taeda L (scientific) ­Authority­ who named the plant ­ex: L= Linneaus ­variety­ plants of same species but display differences in nature; differences breed true ­Ex: Acer saccharum var. leucoderme ­Genus species variety variety name ­sugar maple ­more heat tolerant (SE US) ­cultivar­ selected variety propagated for desirable attribute; does not breed true ­if breeding stopped, cultivar would disappear ­some are patented & cost more ­ex: Cornus florida ‘Big Giant’ (Big Giant­ cultivar) ­flowering dogwood with large white flowers ­Cornus florida var. rubra ‘Cherokee Brave’ ­Variety= pink to pinkish red flowers ­cultivar= reddish pink with white center ­angiosperm­ produce seed within fruit via ovary & ovule in a flower (flowering plants) ­gymnosperms­ produce seeds in cones (lack fruit), non­flowering plants 2 ­ex: conifers (pine, fir, spruce, cypress) *Sub­class of Angiosperms ­Monocotyledon (monocot) ­has one cotyledon (seed leaf) from seed ­ex: all grasses, corn, tulips, orchids, lilies, irises ­Dicotyledon (dicot) ­has cotyledons (seed leaves) from seed ­ex: legumes, cotton, tomato, sweet potato, most trees and shrubs ­other differences include: numbers of flower parts, leaf vein patterns, root structures, & response to herbicides (physiology) ­Length of life ­annual­ plant completes life cycle in one growing season ­ex: corn, beans, marigolds ­biennial­ completes life cycle in two growing seasons ­season 1: produces vegetative growth ­season 2: produces flowers and seeds to reproduce ­ex: cabbage, beets, celery, carrots, onions ­perennial­ can grow for many years ­some dieback in winter and re­grow in spring ­from stored food in roots (legumes & grasses) ­some enter a dormant period (trees & shrubs) ­Agronomic Crop Classification ­cereals or grains­ grasses grown for their edible seeds ­75% starch; 12% protein; 2% fat ­ex: wheat, corn, barley, rice, sorghum ­legumes (pulses)­ high protein seed produced in pods ­1/3 dry wt. as protein 3 ­ex: peanut, field bean, field pea, soybean, lima bean ­forage crops­ fresh or preserved vegetative matter used as feed for animals ­ex: grasses and clover used for hay ­root crops­ grown for their enlarged roots ­ex: sugarbeet, carrot, turnip, sweet potato ­fiber crops­ grown for fiber to make paper, cloth, or rope ­ex: cotton, flax, hemp ­sugar crops­ grown for extraction and crystallization of their sweet juice ­ex: sugarbeet and sugarcane (sucrose); corn and grain sorghum (dextrose) ­oil crops­ seeds with useful oils ­ex: flax, soybean, peanut, sunflower, sesame ­tuber crops­ a short, thick underground stem; stores food reserves; not a root ­ex: potato and Jerusalem artichoke ­drug crops­ seeds with useful oils ­ex: tobacco, mint, pyrethrum ­ornamental crops­ plants grown for their esthetic value ­ex: flowers, shrubs, trees, ground cover, turf grass ­forest tree seedlings­ grown for reforestation of lands and used in landscape ­ex: conifers (pines, cypress); hardwoods (oaks, hickory, maple) ­Special Purpose Classification ­cover crops­ help manage soil fertility, moisture, and erosion; can help control weeds, pests, and diseases ­ex: sorghum sudangrass in a forest nursery ­maintain soil characteristics; cover up land to protect it for future plants ­silage crops­ preserved succulent by partial fermentation in a tight space; 50­80% moisture ­companion crops­ crops grown with another crop ­small grain seeded with a legume for erosion & weed control ­one crop can provide income if other one fails 4 Seeds ­Seed Content ­seeds store food for germination as: ­fat, oil, or carbohydrates (megagametophyte or endosperm) ­seeds with high fat and oil content = higher in protein ­example: cottonseed for cattle feed ­embryo contains: ­cotyledon­ embryonic or seed leaf; third to emerge ­hypocotyl­ embryonic stem; means “below seed leaf”; second to emerge ­epicotyl­ embryonic shoot; above cotyledons; fourth to emerge ­radicle­ embryonic root; first to emerge from seed ­Seed Germination (germ) ­process of plant emerging from a seed and beginning growth ­external conditions required for germ: ­supply of moisture (imbibing) ­supply of oxygen ­suitable temperature ­certain light conditions ­a deficiency in any factor may prevent germination ­moisture: ­water is critical for rapid germ ­applied to seed or absorbed from soil ­germ occurs when moisture content of most field crop seeds reach 26­75% ­examples: 5 ­sorghum & millet = 26% moisture content ­small grains = 45­50 % moisture content ­soybean = 75 % moisture content ­oxygen: ­required for respiration during germ ­dry seeds can be impervious to O 2 ­seed must absorb water first, then O 2 ­seeds planted too deep or in saturated soil may not germinate = oxygen deficiency ­temperature: ­germ can occur with wide range of temps ­depends on crop ­examples: ­ryegrass= 41 F or less ­corn minimum temp for germ = 50 F ­light: ­seeds requiring more light planted closer to surface ­if small seeds germ too deep in soil = loss of food supply before cotyledon reaches surface ­We know what is needed, so how does it work ­water imbibed to certain % of seed dry weight ­seed coats soften & seeds swell up ­food reserves (fats, oils, carbs, sugars) go in to solution & transported to growing points ­respiration provides energy for all germ processes ­respiration occurs faster in moist seeds vs. dry seed ­energy consumed during germ = ½ the weight of dry seed ­growing (swelling) embryo ruptures seed coat ­radicle is first to emerge (when radicle emerges seed is germinated) 6 ­at this point, seed has absorbed all available water ­now, radicle absorbs water needed for seedling growth ­Seed Quality ­some seeds are empty & have no embryo ­broken or injured seeds can have: ­reduced germination ­higher seedling mortality (more deaths) ­smaller plants ­seeds can mold in certain conditions (too wet, certain temp) ­fungi and bacteria can absorb seed’s nutrients ­seeds are often treated with fungicides ­hyphae­ fungal body; extension ­mycelium­ collection of hyphae damping­off­ seeds do not germinate or young seedlings are killed from pathogen infection ­pathogen absorbs seed material = no germ ­if germ, then hypocotyl constricts and seedling buckles ­seedling death ­Seed Dormancy when mature, healthy, and imbibed seed fail to germ when in favorable conditions for germ ­seed stays dormant until conditions are favorable for germ (temp, light, water, etc.) ­Why ­to prevent germ while on parent pant ­to protect seed from harsh weather (cold winters) ­to ensure space and light for growth ­the seed wants to be in a situation for successful growth 7 ­mechanisms of seed dormancy & how to break it ­physical mechanism: hard seed coats prevent water & oxygen absorption ­soak in water for period ­pass through animal gut ­fire ­stratification or “moist chilling” (done for conifer seed) ­soaked in water for a few hours then chilled in refrigerator for days ­physiological mechanism: immature embryo is maintained until right temps (for example) are met ­then embryo ripens prior to germ (known as after­ripening) ­Seed Testing ­seed is expensive = growers want good seed ­laboratory seed testing determines: ­germination % ­ # pure seed ­seed mixed with other seeds ­any weed seeds present *side note: seed efficiency­ # of plantable seedlings from a certain # of pure live seed ­results help with decisions of: ­seed selected ­seeding rates based on germ % ­combating weed problems Exam 2 Material: Botany of Crop Plants ­Nature of Crop Plants ­Life cycle of crop plants ­spermatophyte­ seed plant; most crop plants reproduce by seed ­1.) seed germination ­2.) produces a seedling 8 ­3.) vegetative phase­ increases in number & size of roots, stems, & leaves ­4.) reproductive phase­ plants flower and produce seeds ­Plant Morphology ­Roots ­root functions: ­anchors plant ­absorption of water and nutrients (i.e. nitrogen) ­physical support for aboveground tissue ­food storage organ ­radicle­ embryonic or primary root ­two types of root systems: ­fibrous­ many slender roots similar in diameter and length (monocots) ­ex: cereals, grasses ­taproot­ main root that pushes straight downward with lateral roots branching throughout its length (dicots) ­ex: legumes, root crops, woody plants ­absorption by roots ­root hairs increase root surface area ­hairs help absorb water and nutrients ­nutrient absorption is independent of water needs ­roots grow in moist soil but not saturated soils ­saturated soils = anaerobic conditions ­absence of oxygen = roots smother and die

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 14, Problem 5E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

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Visualizing ConceptsThe following diagrams | Ch 14 - 5E