In 310, determine the Laplace transform of the given function.
GEOG 1113 2/22/16 Notes Types of Languages: Some languages are only in written form and some are only spoken Body language: Sign language (No universal sign language) Gestures and facial expressions and many more (Ex: Raising your hand; Jumping; Bowling) (Everything can mean something different in different languages) Tactile Languages Braille- Dots represent letters Computer programming language Natural language emerged naturally in human communities Artificial languages are intentionally constructed Elvish language Klingon Science Fiction There are about 6,900 languages in the world, however, many languages spoken are only spoken by small numbers of people and few languages are widely spoken. Papua New Guinea: Land of 800 languages Languages have existed for at least 30,000 years We can estimate from artifacts or written texts, however, many languages are not written Most languages share distant historical relationship with at least one other language Language family is a collection of languages that share a common distant ancestor There are 90 different families Indo-European is the biggest family and establishes ½ of the world Hearth is the place of innovation Languages spread historically with agriculture and subsistence farming and often takes thousands of years. Intermarriage Armies enable diffusion of language Colonization: English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and recently there is technology and human mobility GEOG 1113 2/22/16 Notes Ships; Railroads; Planes all ease physical language Internet opens virtual space Mandarin speaking countries have the largest number of speakers but only in one country They are less dominant International organizations can influence language dominance (Ex: UN & EU) Half the world language is lost by .1% which means we are losing a native language once every ten days When a language is lost so is the knowledge Tourism, Business and Religion influence language English is often used in international business Teachers in some communities are encouraged to learn Spanish Knowing multiple languages is often favored in the job market Muslims study Arabic so that they can read the Qur’an State-Less Languages Majority of languages are not associated with the working of the state Not used in government Not taught in schools Used in daily lives Official Languages Newly Independent Included in the constitution Unilingual Bilingual Trilingual None declared Linguistic Borrowing There is contact among in different language speakers Loan words Pidgin Languages combines vocab and grammatical practices from two or more languages that come in contact Languages change over time and from one place to another GEOG 1113 2/22/16 Notes Technologies or disciplines create new vocabulary (Kangaroo story: Cook asked the first man he saw what a kangaroo was-before it had a name- and the man said kangaroo which in his language meant I don’t know) In the Caribbean, Creolization=blending of African, European and some Amerindian cultural influences Creole identities are complex and illustrate dynamic cultural and national identities of region th American English derives from the 17 century British English Virginia and Massachusetts, which are the original colonies and was settled mostly by people from London The mid-Atlantic-Pennsylvania area was settled by people from the North and West of England and by the Scotts-Irish These sources resulted in three dialect areas: Northern, Southern and midland Over time, further dialects would develop Boston, Richmond and Charleston areas maintained strong commercial/cultural ties to England` Some Borrowed Words Include: Bayou Chipmunk Moccasin Moose Opossum Pecan Skunk Squash Woodchuck Geography and Religion: Religion is a system of beliefs and practices that help make sense of the universe and their place in it. Personal Institutional Religion may provide an explanation of the beginning of the world Cosmogony Influence feelings of belonging/attachment GEOG 1113 2/22/16 Notes Religion may be associated with codes, behaviors, morals, “truths” and/or rituals Monotheistic religions believe in one god or deity Polytheistic religions believe in multiple gods Atheistic religions believe that there is no god or deity Animistic- Spirits associated with natural environment Animism (Shamanism) - Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers and is one of the oldest belief systems 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions, however, these beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa Syncretic is the blending of beliefs and practices (Ex: Carnival; Mardi Gras) Coming together= an interesting mix Universalizing: Worldwide scope all are potential adherents 1) Appeal to people everywhere 2) Individual founder (Prophet) 3) Message diffused widely (Missionaries) 4) Followers distributed widely 5) Holidays based on events in founders life Ethnic: Confined to members of a group 1) Has meaning in a particular place only 2) Unknown source 3) Content focused on place and landscape of origin 4) Followers highly clustered 5) Holidays based on local climate and ag. Practice Some major religions are: Judaism (lowest amount of followers mainly due to the fear that the holocaust gave (13 million) Ethnic); Christianity (Has the most followers: 2.3 billion; Universal); Islam (Universal); Hinduism (Ethnic); Buddhism (Universal); Sikhism (Universal)