In 25 and 26, find solutions to the given initial value problem.
Chapter Thirteen Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings Development of Psychoanalysis ● Freud’s place in history ○ “Psychoanalysis” and “Sigmund Freud” are known all over the world ○ Freud is recognizable to the general public ○ He was on the cover of Times magazine three times, once sixty years after his death ○ He was recently revered on the 150th anniversary of his birth ○ Pivotal person in the history of civilization ○ Changed the way we think of ourselves ● Three great shocks to the collective human ego according to Freud ○ Copernicus said the earth was not the center of the universe ○ Darwin said humans are not a distinctive species ○ Freud said unconscious forces rather than rational thought govern our lives ● To give Freud a fair evaluation, you must remember four important points ○ Freud’s theory is the oldest theory currently taught in modern psychology textbooks ○ Since Freud died in 1939, he has not been able to modify or change this theory to incorporate new psychological discoveries or the changing Zeitgeist ○ Freud and his parents were strongly influenced by the Victorian Era when a sizeable portion of the uppermiddle class experienced high degrees of sexual repression ○ Freud was in private practice and was interested primarily in abnormal behavior and how to cure it ● Psychoanalysis ○ Not a school of thought directly comparable to the others ○ Distinct from the mainstream ○ Not a true science ○ Arose from medicine and psychiatry ○ Subject matter is abnormal behavior ○ Primary method is clinical introspection ○ Deals with the unconscious Antecedent Influences on Psychoanalysis ● Theories of the unconscious mind: philosophical speculation ○ Leibnitz’s monads ○ Friedrich Herbart said ideas may be unconscious and must rise above the limen into consciousness ○ Fechner ■ Also used threshold concept ■ Mind: iceberg analogy ■ “Elements of Psychophysics” influenced psychophysics as well as experimental psychology with concept such as the absolute threshold ■ Freud quoted from Fechner and took ideas from him such as the pleasure principle, psychic energy, and importance of aggression ○ In 1880s Europe the ideas about the unconscious were popular and widespread in Europe ○ Freud claimed he did not originate the unconscious, only a way to scientifically study it ● Ideas about psychopathology gradually moved to more humane methods from some highly barbaric early views ○ More humane treatments ○ Vives: spanish scholar ○ Pinel: frenchman ○ Concomitant changes in United States with Dorothea Dix and Benjamin Rush ● The Emmanuel Church Healing Movement ○ Focus on talk therapy increased salience of psychological causes of mental illness to both general public and therapeutic community ○ Elwood Worcester was the originator ○ He was the rector of Emmanuel Church in Boston, MA ○ He had a PhD in philosophy and psychology from the University of Leipzig and studied under Wundt ○ There were talk therapy sessions, both individual and group ● Hypnosis advanced the emerging focus on psychological causes of mental illness ○ Mesmer increased interest in hypnosis but did much damage because of the sideshow antics ○ There was a purple robe, incense, mystic approach ○ Mesmer was a Viennese physician ○ Brain and Martin Charcot make hypnosis respectable again ○ Janet used hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria and other mental conditions ● Freud read all of Darwin’s works and was tremendously influenced by his writings ○ Well read copies of all of Darwin’s works were found in Freud’s library ○ Ideas from Darwin ■ Unconscious mental processes ■ Unconscious mental conflicts ■ The significance of dreams ■ The hidden symbolism of certain behavioral symptoms ■ The importance of sexual arousal and the sex drive ■ Notion of continuity in emotional behavior from childhood to adulthood ■ Humans are driven by biological forces of love and hunger ● Freud and neurotic uppermiddleclass women were more sexually inhibited ● Freud had a general interest in: ○ Sexual pathologies ○ Infantile sexuality ○ The suppression of sexual impulses and its consequences ○ Sex drive is present in children as young as three ■ Patze: Germany ■ Maudsley: Great Britain ○ “Psychopathia Sexualis” discusses a child’s love for their parent is the opposite sex anticipating Freud’s Oedipus Complex ● Catharsis was already a popular concept and there were more than 140 publication on topics in German ● Freud’s concepts about dreams were anticipated in the literature of philosophy and physiology ● Freud’s genius was his ability to weave the threads of ideas and trends into a tapestry of a coherent system Freud and the Development of Psychoanalysis ● Freud was born in Moravia, which is now the Czech Republic ● He moved to Vienna when he was four and lived there 80 years ● Much of his theory is autobiographical ○ His father was 20 years older than his mother and a strict authoritarian ○ Freud’s mother both feared and loved his mother ○ His mother was protective and loving ○ Freud was emotionally attached to her ○ She was enormously proud of him ○ Oedipus Complex: fear of father and sexual attraction to mother ● There was a case Anna O worked with “Josef Breuer” ○ Positive transference: Breuer’s life was jealous of the emotional bonds connecting her husband and Anna ○ Anna was transferring her love for her father into love for her therapist ○ The Anna O. case introduced Freud to the method of catharsis, the talking cure ○ Freud became dissatisfied with hypnosis ○ Free association: a psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind ○ “Studies of Hysteria” was written by Freud and Breuer The Childhood Seduction Controversy ● Freud viewed sex as the key cause of neurosis ● He believed a normal sex life precludes neuroses ● Reported in a paper that patients exposed childhood seduction traumas often caused by the father or other older family member (this is based on freeassociation data) ● His conclusion was that seduction traumas caused adult neurotic behavior ● Freud’s own sex life ○ Had a negative attitude toward sex ○ Experienced sexual difficulties ○ Intermittent impotence ○ At times he refrained from sex because he disliked the available birth control methods which were condoms and coitus interruptus Dream Analysis ● Freud learned from his patients that dreams are a rich source of information providing clues for the causes of disorders ● His deterministic belief that everything has a cause led him to look for unconscious sources in the meanings of dreams ● Manifest content of a dream is the storyline of the dream ● Latent content: hidden meaning of the dream ● “The Interpretation of Dreams” ○ The culmination of Freud’s selfanalysis ○ His major work ○ Outlined the Oedipus complex ○ For the most part, favorably reviewed ○ Read by Carl Jung, who adopted psychoanalysis ● Look at Table 13.1 The Pinnacle of Success ● “The Psychopathology of Everyday Life” ○ Freudian Slip: an act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties ● Freud began weekly psychoanalytic discussion groups with students ○ Included Jung and Adler ○ Most were viewed as neurotic themselves ○ Those who deviated were expelled ● Events of his life from 19091939 ○ Freud and Jung were invited by Hall to Clark University’s 20th Anniversary ○ He broke from Adler ○ He broke from Jung ○ He was diagnosed with cancer, had 33 surgeries in 16 years, and continues to smoke 20 cigars a day ○ Nazis publicly burned Freud’s books ○ Nazis obliterated psychoanalysis in Germany ○ Anna Freud was arrested and detained by the Nazis ○ Freud moved to Paris then London ○ He died by an overdose of morphine by Dr. Max Schur who had promised not to let Freud suffer Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality ● to Freud, instincts are mental representations of internal stimuli (such as hunger) that motivate personality and behavior ○ Life instincts: e.g hunger, thirst, sex ■ Relate to self preservation and survival of the species ■ Manifested in libido: the psychic energy that drives a person toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors ○ The death instinct: e.g. suicide, hatred, aggression ■ Destructive force ■ Can be directed inward or outward ● Structures of the personality ○ Id (es or it): source of psychic energy and the aspect of personality aligned with instincts ■ Corresponds more or less to earlier unconscious ■ The most primitive and least accessible part of personality ■ Includes sexual and aggressive instincts ■ Cauldron full of seething excitations ■ Irrational, unrelenting passions and blind cravings ■ Unaware of reality ■ Operates in accord with the pleasure principle (its goal is to reduce tension by seeking pleasure and avoiding pain ○ Ego (ich or I): the rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling the instincts ■ The mediating agent between id and the external world ■ Goal: to facilitate their interaction ■ Represents rational thought and reason ■ Freud himself used the term “ego” infrequently and he did not like it ■ Ego is aware of reality and manipulates it to regulate the id ■ Operates in accord with the reality principle: restraining id urges until a suitable object is located which fills the need and thus reduces tension ■ Responsible for the use of defense mechanisms: protective, unconscious devices developed by the ego ■ Defense mechanisms distort reality and may help at first, but later become a major problem ■ Know examples of defense mechanisms in Table 13.1 ○ Superego (uberich or above I): the moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values and standards ■ Develops when a child incorporates rules of behavior from their caregivers ■ Develops in response to a system of rewards and punishments ■ There are two parts of the superego: conscience and the egoideal ■ Conscience: child’s incorporation of what the caretakers (as representatives of society) think is wrong and punishable ■ Egoideal: child’s incorporation of what the caregivers consider to be acceptable and worthy of reward ■ Represents morality ■ Goal: perfection principle ■ Irrational, like the id ○ Represents a conflict model of personality: unremitting struggle among id, ego, and superego Psychosexual stages of personality development ● In psychoanalytic theory, the developmental stages of childhood centered on erogenous zones ● Key Freudian conviction: neuroses arise from childhood experiences ● Freud was one of the first to emphasize the importance of child development ● By age five the personality was almost completed ● Children are autoerotic: sensual pleasure derives from stimulation of the body’s erogenous zones ● Each stage focuses on a different erogenous zone ● Inadequate (too much or too little) stimulation at a given stage leads to adult behaviors tied to that stage (i.e. stress moderation in child rearing practices) ● Oral Stage ○ Erogenous zone: the mouth ○ Birth to two years old ○ Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the mouth through sucking, biting, and swallowing ○ Inadequate stimulation leads to adults with habits focused on the mouth ■ e.g. smoking or eating or exhibiting behaviors such as undue optimism or sarcasm ● Anal Stage ○ Erogenous zone: the anus ○ 24 years old ○ Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the anus through expelling or withholding feces ○ Issue: control, obeying or disobeying parents’ wishes ○ Inadequate stimulation leads to an adult who is messy, dirty, wasteful (analexpulsive) or one who is exceeding neat, clean, compulsive (analretentive) ● Phallic Stage ○ Erogenous zone: the genitals ○ 45 years old ○ Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the genitals through fondling or exhibition or through sexual fantasies ○ Occurrence of Oedipus complex: at ages 45, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother and the desire to replace or destroy his father ○ In general, the child is attracted to the opposite sex parent and fearful of the rival, samesex parent ○ To resolve this complex, they identify with the same sex parents and develop a socially acceptable form of affection for the opposite sex parent ○ Attitudes toward the opposite sex that persist into adulthood ○ Child assumes the samesex parent’s superego standards if identification is complete ● Latency stage ○ No erogenous zone ○ 512 years old ● Genital Stage ○ Erogenous zone: genitals ○ Onset of puberty ○ Heterosexual behavior is prominent ○ love/marriage, work, parenthood More Freud stuff ● Free association ● Transference ● Repression ● Resistence ● Freud thinks the id and superego are constantly at war with each other guaranteeing conflict, guilt, and anxiety ● Most people are stuck in the first three stages of psychosexual development ● Though Freud fathered six children, his own sex life was highly troubled ● Freud considered sex to be a nasty necessity that must be overcome if humans are to better their own natures ● Freud was strongly criticized for conducting psychoanalytic sessions on his own daughter, Anna Freud (called incestuous by some therapists) ● Remember that Freud himself experienced repeated episodes of depression, anxiety, and neurasthenia ● Freud actually sought treatment for his deteriorating psychological condition ● Be aware of the criticisms and contributions of psychoanalysis listed at the end of this chapter Chapter Fourteen: Psychoanalysis After the Founding Competing Factions ● Splintered movement within 20 years of its founding ● Freud never spoke again to the rebels ● There were three different groups of subsequent theorists ○ NeoFreudians who elaborated on Freud: Anna Freud ○ Orthodox Freudians who became dissenters: Jung, Adler, and Horney ○ Protesters against both psychoanalysis and behaviorism: Maslow and Rogers The NeoFreudian and Ego Psychology ● In general, they adhered to Freud’s central premises but modified select aspects ● The major change was the expansion of the concept of the ego ○ It is more independent of the id ○ Has its own energy ○ Has functions separate from the id ○ Free of the conflict produced by id pressures ● Influences on Freudian personality theory ○ Deemphasized biological forces ○ Emphasize social and psychological forces ○ Minimize the import of infantile sexuality ○ Minimize the import of the Oedipus complex Anna Freud ● Anna was the youngest of Freud’s six children and she was not a welcomed child ● She was the least and preferred daughter; lonely and unhappy childhood ● She became her father’s favorite child ● Anna had early interest in her father’s work and attended meetings of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society from the age of 14 ● At age 22 she began a fouryear analysis with her father that was called incestuous by some critics ● “Beating Fantasies and Daydreams” ○ Her first scholarly paper she read to the Society ○ Not, as presented, a case history but in reality about herself ○ Gained her admission into the Society ● Clarified and expanded her father’s defense mechanisms ● Nursed her father when he developed cancer ● Expanded the role and importance of the ego ● Pioneered psychoanalysis of children Carl Jung ● For a brief time, Jung served as Freud’s surrogate son and heir to the psychoanalytic throne ● As a results of his split with Freud, he developed his own approach called analytic psychology ● Jung had an unhappy, lonely childhood ○ His father was a temperamental clergyman who lost faith ○ His mother was emotionally unstable with a history of family mental illness ● Jung had a lack of trust in others ● At critical times, his decisions were based on dreams or what his unconscious told him ● He was interested in Freud’s work ○ Read “the Interpretation of Dreams” ○ Began correspondence with Freud ○ Their first meeting lasted 13 hours ○ There was a 20 year age difference ○ Wrote “The Psychology of the Unconscious” ■ Expected this book would strain his relationship with Freud ■ The relationship was terminated ● At age 38, he had severe emotional problems for a three year period ○ Explored his unconscious ○ Dreams used along with other stimuli but were not analyzed systematically like Freud ○ It was a time of immense of creativity which led to the development of his personality theory Analytical Psychology ● There were autobiographical influences, particularly with regard to views about sex ○ The Oedipus complex is not relevant to his childhood experience ○ No major, adult sexual hang ups ○ Preferred the company of women ○ He had affairs ○ His isolation as a child was reflected in his theoretical focus on inner growth rather than social relationships ○ Sex plays a minimal role in explaining human motivation ● Libido was the major difference with Freud’s theory ○ For Jung, libido is a generalized life energy rather than a sexual energy as depicted by Freud ○ The energy expresses itself in growth, reproduction, and other critical processes and events ● Jung rejected the Oedipus complex ○ He said a child’s attachment to its mother is a necessary dependency ○ Libidinal energy takes a heterosexual form after puberty ● Forces that influence personality ○ Freud said people are victims for their childhood ○ Jung said one is shaped by aspirations for the future as well as the past ○ Personality can be changed throughout life rather than be shaped during the first five years of life ● Unconscious mind ○ Jung probed deeper than Freud did ○ He added the component of the collective unconscious The Collective Unconscious ● Personal unconscious: the reservoir of material that once was conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed ○ Comprised all suppressed or forgotten experiences ○ Not a deep level of unconscious ○ Unconscious experiences can easily be brought into awareness ● Complexes: groups of experiences in the personal unconscious ○ Manifested with the preoccupation with some idea ○ The preoccupation/idea influences behavior ○ It is a smaller personality formed within the whole ● Collective Unconscious: the deepest level of the psyche that contains inherited experiences of human and prehuman species ○ Deeper level than the personal unconscious ○ Unknown to the person ○ Contains cumulative experiences of prior generations and animal ancestors ○ Consists of evolutionary experiences ○ A concept very much like evolutionary psychology’s innate predispositions Archetypes ● Archetypes are inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations ● They are inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious ● Innate determinants of mental life ● Predispose one to behave in a manner like one’s ancestors ● Archetypes are associated with: ○ Strong emotions ○ Significant life events ○ Stages of life ○ Reactions to extreme danger ● There are four common archetypes: persona, anima/animus, shadow, and self ● Persona: social mask ○ Characterizes what we want others to think of us ○ May not correspond to our actual personality ● Anima: feminine characteristics in men ● Animus: masculine characteristics in women ● Shadow: our darker side ○ All immoral, passionate, and unacceptable desires ○ Pushes us to behave in ways we ordinarily find unacceptable ○ Source of spontaneity, creativity, insight, and deep emotion ● Self: most important archetype ○ Provides unity and stability to the personality ○ Like a drive or force toward selfactualization (harmony and completeness) ○ Selfactualization cannot occur prior to middle age ● The midlife is crucial to personality development ○ It is a natural time of transition ○ Personality undergoes necessary and beneficial changes Introversion and Extraversion (attitudes) ● Extraverts ○ Libido is directed outside the self ○ Strongly influenced by forces in the environment ○ Is sociable and selfconfident ● Introverts ○ Libido is directed inward ○ Resistant to external influences ○ Contemplative, introspective, less confident in relations with others and the external world ○ Less sociable ● Opposing attitudes exist in all of us to some degree ● No one is a total extrovert or total introvert ● Your dominant attitude at a given moment can be influenced by experience Adler ● Adler broke with Freud in 1911 ● He was thought to be the first advocate of taking a social psychological view within psychoanalysis ● Social interest was a key concept in his theory ● A string quartet was named for him ● He came from a wealthy Viennese family ● His childhood was marked by illness, sibling rivalry, rejection by his mother, feelings of inadequateness and unattractiveness, and learning difficulties ● No experience of an Oedipus complex ● He worked diligently to become popular and do well in school ● The core of his system, inferiority feelings and compensating for weaknesses, are autobiographical in nature ● He joined Freud’s weekly discussion group ○ Openly criticized the emphasis on sexual factors ○ Named the president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society by Freud in an attempt to reconcile their differences ● His relationship with Freud terminated with bitterness ● His theory of personality was called individual psychology which incorporates social as well as biological factors ● Individual psychology attracted many to him ● He died in scotland during a demanding speaking tour and Freud remained bitter about him Individual Psychology ● Social forces, not biological instincts, are the central causes of human behavior ● Social interest: Adler’s conception of an innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societal goals ● Social interest develops through learning experiences in infancy ● Personality determinants ○ Minimizes the role of sex in personality development ○ Focuses on conscious rather than unconscious determinants ○ Future goals have greater effect than past events ● Adler stressed the wholeness and uniformity of personality ○ Single driving force ○ Toward one overriding goal: superiority ● Striving for superiority (meaning perfection) permeates the personality ○ A dominant life goal ○ Exemplifies total selfrealization ○ Innate, vigorous, and universal ○ Evident in every aspect of the personality ● Women are no different than men in terms of real or imagined inferiority ○ The alleged inferiority of women (like Freud said) is a male selfinterested myth ○ Social forces, not innate predispositions, contribute to any inferiority feelings of women ○ Adler was a champion of equal rights for women More Adler Stuff ● Inferiority feelings ● Style of life ● The creative power of the self ● Birth order: the different social experiences of the oldest, youngest, and middle children result in different personalities and coping mechanisms ○ Oldest: insecure and hostile ○ Middle: ambitious, rebellious, and jealous ○ Youngest: likely to be spoiled and predisposed toward behavior problems ● In contrast to Freud, Adler presents an optimistic picture of humans who can shape their own destinies no matter what genetic or childhood obstacles they face ● Adler may be considered strong antecedent influence on humanism Horney ● Horney was one of the first feminists ● Trained as a Freudian analyst ● She intended to extend Freud’s work, not replace it ● She was born in Hamburg, Germany ● Her childhood experiences influenced her system ○ Her father was religious, gloomy, and disparaged Karen’s attractiveness and intelligence ○ Her mother was liberal, full of life, rejected Karen, and treated her brother as special ○ The lack of parental love was an autobiographical impetus for her concept of basic anxiety ○ Horney’s conception of pervasive loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of neuroses ● She got her MD from the University of Berlin, despite her father’s opposition ● She received orthodox psychoanalytic training and experienced a ceaseless search for approval ● Most lasting affair was with Erich Fromm, who as another analysis who dissented with Freud Disagreements with Freud ● She opposed the view that personality depends on unchangeable biological influences ● Denied the primacy of sex in personality formation ● She disputed Oedipus theory ● Rejected the concept of libido ● Rejected the Freudian structure of personality (id, ego, superego) ● Opposed Freud’s tenet that women are motivated by penis envy ● Posited that men are instead motivated by womb envy ● Horney and Freud had contrasting views of human nature ○ Freud: pessimist, skeptic with regard to human decency and growth potential, humanity is destined to suffer or destroy ○ Horney:optimistic, believer in human potential and decency, humans are capable of change ● Basic anxiety is the driving force of behavior in Horney’s system Last of Horney Stuff ● Horney identified ten neuroses and grouped them in three trends ○ The compliant personality: movement toward others for affection, approval, domination in order to feel secure ○ The detached personality: movement away from others to gain independence and faultlessness and withdraw from contact ○ The aggressive personality: movement against others to gain power and status and aggress against others ● All of these trends are unrealistic ways to deal with anxiety ○ They generate conflict through their incompatibility ○ They are too inflexible to permit alternative behaviors ○ If the neuroses are deeprooted, they will exacerbate one’s problems ○ They permeate all aspects of our personality, behavior, and relationships ● The idealized selfimage ○ False picture of self ○ Masks and denies true self ○ Leads to the belief that one is better than one really is ○ Neurotic conflicts are neither innate or inevitable and rise from undesirable situations in childhood ● Horney’s optimism was greeted with pleasure ● She described personality using social rather than innate variables ● She renewed popularity with the women’s movement ● Her major contribution were writings on feminist psychology Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychology in general ● Humanistic psychology was not intended as a revision or adaptation of other schools ● Instead, it was conceived as a third force to replace the two forces of behaviorism and psychoanalysis ● Basic themes: ○ Emphasis on the positive rather than the negative in human traits and goals ○ Focus on conscious experience ○ Belief in free will ○ Confidence in unity of human personality ● Adler and Horney were antecedent influences on humanist psychology ○ Conscious as well as unconscious are determinants of personality and behavior ○ Humans are capable of free will and have the capacity to shape themselves ○ The past, present, and future are important determinants ● The zeitgeist of the 1960s also helped spread humanism ○ Protest against western mechanism and materialism ○ Focus on personal fulfillment ○ Belief in human perfectibility ● Nature of humanistic psychology: protested behaviorism, Freudianism, and psychology’s Maslow ● Maslow was the spiritual father of humanistic psychology ● He was the strongest influence on initiating the movement ● He garnered academic respect for the movement ● His goal was to understand the highest achievements of which humans are capable ● Maslow was born in brooklyn and had an unhappy childhood, which he escaped through study and books ● At Cornell University he had a horrid first course in psychology taught by titchener ● He made early attempts to humanize psychology while teaching at Brooklyn College ○ Ostracized by behaviorists and avoided by colleagues ○ Liked by his students ○ Major journals refused to publish his work Maslow’s Psychology ● Selfactualization: the full development of one’s abilities and the realization of one’s potential ● The hierarchy of needs ○ Physiological ○ Safety ○ Belonging and love ○ Esteem ○ Selfactualization ○ (later added esthetic and cognitive needs) ● His research was to analyze biographies and other information of people such as Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and George Washington Carver ● Selfactualized persons are free of neurosis and are middleaged or older ● Tendencies common of selfactualizers: ○ Objective perception of reality ○ A full acceptance of their own nature ○ A commitment and dedication to some kind of work ○ Simplicity and naturalness of behavior ○ A need for autonomy, privacy, and independence ○ Intense mystical or peak experiences ○ Empathy with and affection for humanity ○ Resistance to conformity ○ A democratic character structure ○ Attitude of cleverness ○ A high degree of Adler’s social interest Rogers ● Developed personentered therapy ○ Client is responsible for change ○ Assumes one can consciously and rationally alter one’s thoughts and behaviors ● His personality theory focuses on a single motive akin to selfactualization ● His subject population were students treated at campus counseling centers ● Personality is formed by the present and how it is consciously perceived Fate of Humanistic Psychology ● The fate of humanistic psychology was a brief flame of enthusiasm and excitement followed by a gradual decline ● Major figures in the humanist movement describe humanism as a disappointment or even a failure ● Positive Psychology: continued humanistic themes of studying the best characteristics of humans ● Seligman was an APA president ○ Noted preponderance of attention to negative (e.g. anxiety and aggressions) as compared with positive (E.g. altruism and honesty) influences ○ Called for a more positive framework for studying the nature and potential of humans ○ Know about his book on “Happiness and WellBeing” ● Know about variable that do or don’t make people happy Chapter Fifteen: Contemporary Developments in Psychology Understand the importance of the chess game discussed in the beginning of the chapter Understand the role of “schools” in the development of psychology as we know it today The Cognitive Movement in Psychology ● Know the antecedent influences on cognitive psychology (pg. 360361) ● Miller ○ “Language and Communication” ○ Wrote the classic article “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information” ● The Center for Cognitive Studies and Bruner ○ Purpose was to investigate the human mind ○ Cognition was defined by what is was not (not behaviorism) ○ Students reported that no one could tell them what cognitive psychology actually was ● Neisser ○ “Cognitive Psychology” becomes a landmark book ○ Became a vocal critic of cognitive psychology ○ “Cognition and Reality” ■ Dissatisfied with the narrowing of the cognitive position and the reliance on artificial laboratory situations for data ■ His conclusion was that cognitive psychology could contribute little ● The Computer Metaphor ○ The computer replaced the clock as the model of the mind ○ The focus was on the program (software) not the hardware (computer) ○ Their focus was how the mind processes information ○ Their goal was the discovery of patterns of thinking (programs) ● Artificial intelligence: is the intelligence of the computer the same as that of a human ○ Initially, the idea was eagerly accepted ○ Turing Test: can a subject interacting with a computer be persuaded that he/she is communicating with a human ■ Also known as the Chinese room problem ○ Kasparov was a world chess champion and he lost a chess match to Deep Blue (giant IBM computer) The Nature of Cognitive Psychology ● Cognitive factors a consideration in nearly every area with a focus of knowing ● Cognitive Neuroscience ● The role of introspection is often a good predictor of behavior ● Unconscious Cognition ○ Cognitive psychologists agree that the unconscious does more than we thought it did ○ It does most of our thinking and information processing ○ It operates more quickly and efficiently than the conscious mind ● Animal Cognition ○ Cognitive revolution returned consciousness to animals ○ Since the 1970s, how animals encode, transform, compute, and manipulate information ● Animal Personality ○ In the early 1990s, two psychologists studied 44 red octopuses ■ Keepers saw different personalities in them ■ Psychologists observed using three experimental situations ■ They found three factors: activity, reactivity, and avoidance ■ They said this was personality ○ Since then other studies have shown support for animal personality in fish, spiders, farm animals, hyenas, chimps, and dogs ○ Mice, chimps, elephants, and dolphins showed empathy ○ This is evidence of more similarity between humans and animals Evolutionary Psychology ● As biological animals, humans have been programmed through evolution to behave and process information in a manner that increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction ● Know the four fundamental propositions listed on pg. 377 ● Know the antecedent influences on evolutionary psychology ● Wilson was a biologist who published the seminal book “Sociobiology: A New Synthesis” ○ He defined sociobiology was the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior ○ Controversy erupted because of several implications ○ Humans are not created equal ○ Genetic, not cultural, influences may determine behavior ○ Suggests the unchangeable nature of human behavior ○ Division of labor based on sex, ethical behavior, tribalism, male dominance, territorial aggression, etc… defined the elements of human nature ○ Sociobiology became an extremely negative term ● Evolutionary psychology is currently socially acceptable and popular ● It has drawn substantial criticism from environmentalists and those who say the breadth of the field makes it difficult to form and test meaningful hypotheses