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An automobile weighing 2500 lbf increases its

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781118412930 | Authors: Michael J. Moran ISBN: 9781118412930 139

Solution for problem 2.5 Chapter 2

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition

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Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781118412930 | Authors: Michael J. Moran

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition

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Problem 2.5

An automobile weighing 2500 lbf increases its gravitational potential energy by 2.25 3 104 Btu in going from an elevation of 5183 ft in Denver to the highest elevation on Trail Ridge Road in the Rocky Mountains. What is the elevation at the high point of the road, in ft?

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Abnormal Psychology Chapter 12 Personality Disorders An Overview Personality Disorders - Personality disorders - A persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships An Overview Personality Disorders - High comorbidity - Poorer prognosis - Therapist reactions - Countertransference - 10 specific personality disorders - 3 clusters Categorical and Dimensional Models - Categorical vs. dimensional models - “Kind” vs. “Degree” - Dimensions instead of categories - By a dimensional model individuals would not only be given categorical diagnoses but also would be rated on a series of personality dimensions - “Emerging measures and models” Categorical and Dimensional Models - Five factor model of personality (“Big Five”) - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Emotional stability - Cross-cultural research establishes the universal nature of the five dimensions Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster A - Odd or eccentric - Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal - Cluster B - Dramatic, emotional, erratic - Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster C Abnormal Psychology - Fearful or anxious - Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Clusters Statistics and Development - Prevalence = 6%, may be closer to 10% - Origins and course - Begin in childhood --Chronic course -Can remit but is replaced by other personality disorder -High comorbidity Statistics and Development Gender Differences - Men diagnosed with a personality disorder tend to display traits characterized as more - Aggressive, structured, self-assertive and detached - Women tend to present with characteristics that are - More submissive, emotional and insecure Gender Differences - Clinician bias - Assessment bias - Criterion gender bias - Histrionic = extreme “stereotypical female” - No “macho” disorder - Ford and Widiger (1889) Comorbidity - Comorbidity - Personality disorders- 10% Personality Disorders Under Study - Categories of disorders - Sadistic - Passive aggressive Personality Disorders Under Study Personality Disorders Under Study -Cluster A: Paranoid Clinical description - Mistrust and suspicion - Pervasive - Unjustified - Few meaningful relationships - Volatile - Tense - Sensitive to criticism Cluster A: Paranoid - Causes Abnormal Psychology - Possible relationship to schizophrenia - Possible role of early experience - Trauma - Learning - People are malevolent and deceptive - Cultural factors - Prisoners - refugees - people with hearing impairments - older adults Cluster A: Paranoid - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on developing trust - Cognitive therapy - Assumptions - No empirically-supported treatments - Poor improvement rate Cluster A: Paranoid Cluster A: Schizoid - Clinical description - Appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships - Loner --Limited range of emotions -Appear cold, detached -Appear unaffected by praise, criticism - Unable or unwilling to express emotion - No thought disorder Cluster A: Schizoid - Causes - Limited research - Precursor: childhood shyness - Possibly related to: - Abuse/neglect - Autism -Cluster A: Schizoid - Treatment Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on relationships - Social skills therapy - Empathy training - Role playing - Social network building Abnormal Psychology - Empirically-supported treatments limited- Cluster A: Schizoid - Cluster A: Schizoid Cluster A: Schizotypal - Clinical description - Psychotic-like symptoms - Magical thinking - Ideas of reference - Illusions - Odd and/or unusual - Behavior - Appearance - Socially isolated - Suspicious Cluster A: Schizotypal - Causes - Schizophrenia phenotype - Lack full biological or environmental contributions - Cognitive impairments - Left hemisphere - More generalized Cluster A: Schizotypal - Treatment - Treatment of comorbid depression 30 – 50% - Multidimensional approach - Social skill training - Antipsychotic medications - Community treatment Cluster A: Schizotypal Cluster B: Antisocial - Clinical description - Noncompliance with social norms - “Social Predators” - Violate rights of others - Irresponsible - Impulsive - Deceitful - Lack a conscience, empathy, and remorse Cluster B: Antisocial - Nature of psychopathy - Glibness/superficial charm - Grandiose sense of self-worth - Pathological lying - Conning/manipulative - Lack of remorse Abnormal Psychology - Callous/lack of empathy Cluster B: Antisocial - DSM-5 - More trait based approach - Overlap with ASPD, criminality - Intelligence -Cluster B: Antisocial - Developmental considerations Early histories of behavioral problems - Conduct disorder - childhood-onset type - adolescent-onset type - Families history of: - Inconsistent parental discipline - Variable support - Criminality - Violence Cluster B: Antisocial Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gene-environment interaction - Genetic predisposition - Environmental triggers - Arousal hypotheses - Underarousal - Fearlessness Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gray’s model of brain functioning - Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) - Low - Reward system High - Fight/flight system Causes of Antisocial Personality - Interactive, integrative model - Genetic vulnerability - Neurotransmitters - Environmental factors - Family stress and dysfunction - Reinforcement of antisocial behaviors - Alienation from good role models - Poor occupational/social function Antisocial Personality Disorder - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - High recidivism - Incarceration Abnormal Psychology - Early intervention - Prevention - Parent training - Rewards for pro-social behaviors - Skills training - Improve social competence Cluster B: Borderline - Clinical description -1 – 2% of population - Patterns of instability - Intense moods - Turbulent relationships - Impulsivity - Very poor self-image - Self-mutilation - Suicidal gestures Cluster B: Borderline Cluster B: Borderline - Comorbid disorders - Depression – 20% - Suicide – 6% - Bipolar – 40% - Substance abuse – 67% - Eating disorders - 25% of bulimics have BPD Cluster B: Borderline - Causes - Genetic/biological components - Serotonin - Limbic network - Cognitive biases - Early childhood experience - Neglect - Trauma - Abuse - An Integrative Model Cluster B: Borderline - Treatment - Highly likely to seek treatment - Antidepressant medications - Dialectical behavior therapy - Reduce “interfering” behaviors - Self-harm - Treatment - Quality of life Abnormal Psychology - Outcomes Cluster B: Histrionic - Clinical description - Center of attention - Sexually provocative - Shallow shifting emotions - Physical appearance-focused - Impressionistic - Overly dramatic - Suggestible - Misinterprets relationships Cluster B: Histrionic Cluster B: Histrionic - Causes - Little research - Links with antisocial personality - Sex-typed alternative expression Cluster B: Histrionic - Treatment - Problematic interpersonal relationships - Attention seeking - Long-term consequences of behavior - Little empirical support Cluster B: Narcissistic - Clinical description - Exaggerated and unreasonable sense of selfimportance - Grandiosity - Require attention - Lack sensitivity and compassion - Sensitive to criticism - Envious - Arrogant Cluster B: Narcissistic Cluster B: Narcissistic - Causes - Deficits in early childhood learning - Altruism - Empathy - Sociological view - Increased individual focus - “Me generation” Cluster B: Narcissistic - Treatment focuses on: - Grandiosity - Lack of empathy - Hypersensitivity to evaluation - Co-occurring depression Abnormal Psychology - Little empirical support Cluster C: Avoidant - Clinical description - Extreme sensitivity to opinions - Avoid most relationships - Interpersonally anxious - Fearful of rejection Cluster C: Avoidant Cluster C: Avoidant -Causes - Schizophrenia-related disorders - Difficult temperament - Early parental rejection - Interpersonal isolation and conflict Cluster C: Avoidant - Treatment - Similar to social phobia - Increase social skills - Therapeutic alliance - Moderate empirical support Cluster C: Dependent - Clinical description - Rely on others for major and minor decisions - Unreasonable fear of abandonment - Clingy - Submissive - Timid - Passive - Feelings of inadequacy - Sensitivity to criticism - High need for reassurance Cluster C: Dependent Cluster C: Dependent - Causes - Little research - Early experience - Death of a parent - Rejection by caregiver - Attachment - Genetic influences Cluster C: Dependent - Treatment - Limited empirical support - Caution: dependence on therapist - Gradual increases in: - Independence - Personal responsibility Abnormal Psychology - Confidence Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Clinical description - Fixation on doing things the “right way” - Rigid - Perfectionistic - Orderly - Preoccupation with details - Poor interpersonal relationships - Obsessions and compulsions are rare Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Causes - Limited research - Weak genetic contributions - Predisposed to favor structure Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Treatment - Similar to OCD - Address fears related to the need for orderliness - Limited efficacy data

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Chapter 2, Problem 2.5 is Solved
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Textbook: Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics
Edition: 8
Author: Michael J. Moran
ISBN: 9781118412930

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An automobile weighing 2500 lbf increases its