Lane dividers on highways sometimes have regularly spaced ridges or ripples. When the tires of a moving car roll along such a divider, a musical note is produced. Why? Explain how this phenomenon could be used to measure the car’s speed.
Glycocalyx: sticky external sheath (loose=slime layer, attached=capsule) Prokaryotes: Archaea and Bacteria; perform transcription/translation at same time b/c lack nucleus flagella: made of flagellin and allows for phototaxis & chemotaxis Taxis: movement in response to a stimulus Cell wall: made of peptidoglycan, repeating NAG/NAM units Eukaryotes: Algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, plants; larger w/nucleus Biofilm: group of bacteria working together—more pathogenic and adherence is better Catabolism: break down chemical in metabolism (exergonic—release energy) Anabolism: synthesize larger molecules from fragments (endergonic— requires energy) Substrate level phosphylation: transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound Oxidative phosphorylation: energy from redox rxns attach inorganic phosphate to ADP Photophosphorlyation: light energy to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate Apoenzyme: proteins in combination to make enzymes Cofactors: non-protein structures that allow enzymes to be active (organic/inorganic) Coenzymes: organic cofactor Holoenzyme: binding of apoenzyme and cofactor Competitive inhibitors: shape to active site and prevent substrate binding Noncompetitive inhibitors: prevent activity by binding to allosteric site Allosteric inhibition: binds to allosteric site to change active site shape and prevent activity Excitatory allosteric control: binding at allosteric site allows for substrate to fit in active site Feedback inhibition (negative feedback): product of later enzyme acts as allosteric inhibitor for one of previous enzymes to prevent activity when not needed Chemiosmosis: ion gradient for ATP synthesis Fermentation: partial oxidation of sugar to use energy of organic molecules Protease: splits proteins into amino acids Photoautotrophs: light as energy source, carbon dioxide as carbon source Chemoautotrophs: energy from chemical compounds, carbon from carbon dioxide Photoheterotrophs: energy from light, carbon from organic compounds Chemoheterotrophs: chemical compounds for energy, carbon from organic source Obligate aerobes: oxygen is essential Obligate anaerobes: poisoned in presence of oxygen Facultative aerobes: metabolism slowed but function with fermentation Aerotolerant anaerobes: tolerate oxygen with enzyme to break down Growth factors: organic chemicals that cannot be synthesized but needed for growth Psychophiles: grow best bellow 15 degrees Celcius Thermophiles: grow best above 40 d celcius Quorum sensing: detect cell density nearby and create biofilms Antagonist relationship: one microbe is damaged/killed as result Synergist relation: increase chance of survival for both but can thrive w/o Symbiotic relationship: become dependent on each other to survive Clinical specimen: sample of human material Defined media: exact chemical composition known Complex media: contains partial digestion of beef, yeast, soy, or protein *exact formula unknown Lyophilization: removing water from frozen specimens Desiccation: drying to preserve food Nucleoid: location of prokaryotic circular molecule of DNA Plamids: DNA that replicated independently of chromosomes Genotype: set of organisms genes in their genome Phenotype: set of physical features and functions Transcription: DNA copied to RNA nucleotide sequences Translation: RNA molecules of ribosomes synthesize peptides Promoters: located at beginning of gene and initiate transcription Silent mutations: code for the same gene Missense mutation: codes for different amino acid Nonsense codon: changes codon to stop codon Nucleotide analogs: similar in structure to normal nucleotides Horizontal gene transfer: passing of genes from donor cell to recipient in same generation Transformation: take up gene from outside environment (dead organisms) Transduction: transfer DNA from once to the next by replicating virus Bacteriophage/phage: virus that infects bacteria Conjugation: donor remains alive and needs physical contact b/w cells Sterilization: remove/destroy all viable microoganisms—endospores and viruses Sanitaiton: remove organism/debris on inanimate objects to a safe level Disinfection: destroying vegetative cells on inanimate surface (homes) Antisepsis: chemical removes organisms from living tissue Degermination: cleaning animate objects by scrubbing—physically removing Thermal death point: lowest temp to kill an organism in a given period Thermal death time: shortest time to organism at certain temperature Ionizing radiation: sufficient energy to remove electrons creating ions Non-ionizing radiation: affect dimensional shape of molecules Therapeutic Index: rate safety of antimicrobials (toxic dose/therapeutic dose) *larger safer Opsonins: increase quantity and kind of binding sites for microbe to increase phagocytosis Toll-like receptors: protein on membrane that acts as warning to trigger immunity Interferons: proteins released by host to non-specifically stop spread of infection Type I (alpha/beta): protective steps for neighboring uninfected cells Type II (gamma): produced by active T cell/natural killer cells Innate immunity: present at birth; physical barriers and cells/cell processes Adaptive immunity: immune response from B and T cells