A closed system of mass 10 kg undergoes a process during which there is energy transfer by work from the system of 0.147 kJ per kg, an elevation decrease of 50 m, and an increase in velocity from 15 m/s to 30 m/s. The specific internal energy decreases by 5 kJ/kg and the acceleration of gravity is constant at 9.7 m/s2 . Determine the heat transfer for the process, in kJ.
History of Landscape Architecture Parks Movement, England 1. When did the idea of a park start 2. How and when did the park become public Historic Precedents Mesopotamia- Assyrian hunting and fishing parks Roman Empire- Julius Caesar gave parks his lands for public parks Renaissance Italy- urban aristocratic estates were opened ot the public several weeks per year Baroque France- the French chateaux was still included area for hunting and was a part o fthe nobilities entertainment England- St. James Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens were opened to the public under limited conditions, times, and days Transition from Private Parks to Public Parks - The rapid growth of technology; the industrial revolution fostered urban growth an immigration to cities to supply labor for industrial production and services. Inadequate working conditions, housing, water, sewer, and waste disposal for the new workers and their families resulted in increasing epidemics and chronic disease. Median life expectancy in industrial cities fell to 17 years old - A steady increase in concern for the living conditions and working conditions in cities by upper and growing middle class led to: The Social Reform Movement Industrial Revolution - Master over iron- development of sheet iron/steel - Iron structures- iron columns- iron trusses allowed for factories, stronger floors, larger buildings - Steam locomotives, railroads increased trade - Factories no longer had to be near raw materials - Growth of tightly packed industrial towns near ports - Agricultural workers attracted by industry - Steamships followed leading to expansion of England’s ports, London and Liver pool were among the most effected - Reinforced concrete was rediscovered, enabled larger and cheaper more productive manufacturing Social Reform - Growing concern over populations health and safety for moral and political reasons - 1819, Factory Act protecting women and children against mounting hazards of mechanization manufacture, unregulated hours, worker age - 1825- industrialist Robert Owen was making proposals for new industrial communities to ensure workers contentment and productivity - 1840 Social Reform Movement gained tremendous effect on public opinion of the middle class to support landscape change in Cemeteries, Parks, suburban housing, and urban infrastructure th 19 century British landscape restructuring - Proposals for restructuring the landscape reflected shift in medical theory to miasma ideology o Unknown gas (didn’t exist) that appeared in moist air was the source of most disease or predisposed people to catch disease o Theory was wrong but their response to the theory killed mosquitos which solved the problem - Evidenced in proposals for new urban landscapes in the form of o – cemeteries, street improvements, infrastructure improvements, parks, suburban villas 19 century medical theory and environmental characteristics - Identified with disease and health - Environmentally based medical theories influenced middle class opinion concerning parks through medical studies that identified specific environmental characteristics related to disease including : o The amount and extent of moving water, the depth of water bodies, swamp and marsh conditions, urban density, the density and types of vegetation, and other environmental characteristics associated with decomposition, soil, water, wind, and sunlight o Most importantly the studies found that people in rural areas were much healthier that in urban areas. Solution: include large rural landscapes in cities o The result of this- short grass, trees in clumps so it wouldn’t dam up the gas Transition from Private Parks to Public Parks - The two great technological and social movements; industrial revolution and social reform, found support in medial theory to introduce the large rural park into the city - A precedent early park project is o Regents Park in North East London - Two principal large rural type urban parks are: o Victoria Park in East London o Birkenhead Park in Liverpool Regent Park, North West London - Royal hunting park until 1811 - Developed finally as elite housing to surround private gated park 1822 - Like prior urban private park/estates owned by aristocrats and elite, Regents Park was opened under limited conditions for several days per month - The project was a financial success, influencing attempts at other real estate development schemes around parks - Original plan by John Nash for Prince Regents royal and aristocrat palace real estate project 1811 Victoria Park; East London - West London- affluent aristocrats, East London- poverty ridden masses - Reformers pointed out the effect of improved investment in residential areas around the royal parks (ex. Prince Regents Park) as a reason to build an East London Par - Victoria Park designed by James Penne Thorne 1841-1846 - Initially intended as a real estate development scheme like Regents Park, but tuned into a broader public park based on social reform and public heath based on the success of Birkenhead Park - Only formal part of the park is the entry, trees spread around landscape in clumps, some housing around the edges (not enough to make the concept work) Birkenhead Park - In 1833, Parliament passed and act vesting power in a broad of commissioner to create a park for the health and recreation for the people of Liverpool as a response to squalid living conditions among the working poor - Based on the right of working class to have their version of a private park - Congestion of factories were to be offset by an open space reflecting country type scenery - The birth of a phenomenon that became known as the country park - The park would have around its edges house/plots fur those who recognize the value of the park - Unprecedented was the use of public funds for securing land and developing a park to be used and owned by the people of Birkenhead - In 1834, Joseph Paxton was engaged as the park designer Paxton’s Design - Two lakes were dug - Housing on the edges - Curvilinear design theme - Nice small gates “lodges” (only 4 were built) - Several bridges and iconic buildings (fairly typical of the romantic style) Inspiration - Effect of the park on young Frederick Law Olmstead - In 1850, Olmstead (28 years old) spent several months in England - Landed in Liverpool- visited Birkenhead - Conversation with a baker - In Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England Olstead says “begged us not to leave Birkenhead without seeing the new park… I was ready to admit that in democratic America there was nothing to be thought of as comparable with this Peoples Garden… The poorest British peasant is as free to enjoy it in all its parts as the British Queen. More than that, the baker of Birkenhead had the pride of an OWNER in it… is that not a grand good thing” History of Landscape Architecture The United States of America The Early National Period (1760-1830) - The early national period is a transitional time period in the history of the us that witnessed the change from colony to republic Influences on philosophical movements - Two philosothical mothments influenced though in the early national period (18 and 19 century o Enlightenment o Romanticism Enlightenment - An international philosophical movement of the 19 century that began in England an deemphasized the use of reason and early scientific inquiry o It is considered an offshoot of the Renaissance - European enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke stressed that o People acquire knowledge directly from experience o Basis of knowledge is empirical and rational o Founded upon critical thinking o People entitled to freedom of thought o Therefore, should be entitled to freedom of speech - Enlightenment had a special influence on the US, particularly seen in the Revolutionary movement and the process of government formation Romanticism - Refer to previous information - Romanticism focused on nature - Sensuality, emotion, and imagination were equally essential human traits than reason, intelligence, and deductive ability Therefore… - While enlightenment relied on and promoted early scientific query, Romanticism was inspired by expression in arts, literature, and painting - A combined influence of both enlightenment and romanticism was reflected in the landscape designs of the early national period Landscape Design Characteristics During the Early National Period - Formal elements; design inspired by renaissance style (Romanticism) - Informal elements: design inspired by Romantic style (Romanticism) - A hybrid of formal (geometric) and informal (naturalistic) elements in one design Paca Garden - Built (1763-1765) during the early national period in Annapolis - Ex of wilderness garden style o Appears to be unique to North America Characteristics of Wilderness Gard style - House is located on a high point with terraces stepping downhill - Garden consist of two parts o Upper area- near the house is divided into formal terraces (Renaissance) o Lower area- the wilderness is the natural area planted with irregularly arranged trees o Usually contains a focal element, at Paca, an observatory - Not all gardens of Early National Period incorporated the natural and geometric as f2 separate parts as in the Wilderness Garden Style - Some gardens designs were the reflection of the ideas their owners based on European models - the best three examples were o Mount Vernon o Monticello o Woodlands Mount Vernon - “European knock off”, influenced by Palladio - Residence of the 1 US President - Ex of gardens of the Early National Period - Washington acquired Mount Vernon in 1752 - Layout integrates a formal plan, geometric in its outline with naturalistic views - Both formal and informal gardens are integrated into one unified symmetrical and balanced plan - Based on architecture of Andre Palladio City Planning During the Early National Period - Washington DC is an example of city planning during the Early National Period - Pierre L’Enfant’s plan for Washington DC was the 1 comprehensive design for a planned national capitol - Significance in two regards o Site selection was based on a pre-established criteria related to geography o The design of the entire capital was completed before the land development began - L’Enfant was familiar with designs of major cities in Europe and the US, but two schemes seemed most influential on his design if DC o John Evelyn’s 1666 reconstruction plan for the burned portions of London o Andre le Notre’s plan for Versailles - Both examples use a series of focal points and a combination of radial avenues and gridiron street patterns History of Landscape Architecture Romanticism: The English School Social History - During 1480-1715, England was unified under one monarch - Roman Catholicism was dominant until 1534, when Henry VIII, after divorcing his wife, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church - He reformed the church into the Church of England (Anglican) - After a period of political instability threatening the monarchy, it was restored in 1960 - Influence of Italian Renaissance and French Baroque movements appear in England - During 1700-1840 England became a world power o Increased trade of colonies o Expanded the textile industry and manufacturing o The industrial revolution o Expansion of energy resource use (coal) o Military capabilities - Aristocracy and landed elite were influenced by Romantic movement growing out of the Italian Renaissance and French Baroque - Aristocracy and landed elite expanded rural real estate holdings and employed “landscape gardeners” to improve their country estates Hampton Court Palace - Gardens were rebuilt for an existing palace (1699) as an English Versailles by King William III of England - Influenced by French Baroque Andre Le Notre - Baroque characteristics, ex. Radial avenues, formal parterre gardens - Although gardens have sophisticated detailing, the design lacks mature techniques of Le Notre - Romanticismthan artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18 century, characterized by a heightened interest in nature and departure from geometric forms of classical design English Romanticism - While French Baroque gardens were fashionable, “seeds were sown” for a design revolution from formal to informal landscape - Increasing upper class appreciation for landscape painters, including Rubens and Lorrain, helped established a visual imagery for romantic landscapes - Increasing appreciation of poetry that emphasized and praised rural landscape scenes such as rolling hills, valleys, forests, meandering streams, country bridges, etc. - The increasing appreciation for the development of aesthetic “taste” in educating young upper class and increasing middle class. “Taste” was considered a form or education in moral judgement and was tied directly to the appreciation for landscape scenes like rolling hills etc. Critical Writings Against the Formal Landscape - Joseph Addison in aesthetic journal The Spectator pointed out o The lack of a refined sense of taste in the formal garden with its hedges clipped into cones, globes, and pyramids o The role of taste in understanding naturalistic landscapes and their moral order within natural law - “Landscape in its natural state” and “Beauty occurs in nature” were topics for articles by philosopher Alexander Pope - Landscape gardener William Kent stated in 1730 “Nature abhors a straight line” - Moral essayist and artist William Hograth writes in 1752 “the wavy line is the way to beauty” - Richard Payne Knight 1790 described the importance of moral experience of beautiful and picturesque landscapes The Influence of Claude Lorrain’s Painting - The mythical Greek and Roman iconography depicted in Lorrains landscape paintings influenced the Romantic Gardens The Beautiful and the Picturesque - First half of 18 century, the Romantic landscape school was identified with William Kent - Second half was dominated by landscape gardener Capability Brown - Their work represented two primary Romantic types: o The Picturesque (garden undressed) o The Beautiful (garden dressed) The Picturesque - Aims at producing irregular outlines, abrupt and rugged surfaces, trees of wild and bold character - In landform, this was achieved by using rocky groups and broken banks - In trees, by using old irregular ones with rough barks - In walks, by having sudden and abrupt variations and change in direction The Beautiful - Aims at producing regular outlines that are flowing and gradual - In landform, this is achieved by using smooth grades and transitions - In trees, by using full rounded trees with smooth barks - In walks, by using flowing curves with no sharp angles or abrupt turns Castle Howard - Ex of early Romantic period, built (1701) by the Earl of Carlisle - The revolutionary idea of detaching the castle from the authoritative avenue - The castle stands in the center of natural scenery - Early suggestion that the castle should be cut off from the outside world - Romantic landscape features are being added, ex. Mausoleum, temple, and bridge The Garden of Stowe - Gardens of Stowe, Buckinghamshire, were begun in 1715 by Lord Cobham - The inner park encompassed by formal design, surrounded by the first ha-ha - The outer park, for hunting and riding, has a baroque immense scale - Ex of early romantic period - 1777 the gardens around the mansion were adjusted to the new English romantic style - Grouping of trees ingeniously absorbed the straight lines and avenue The Gardens of Stourhead (1740-60) - Influenced by the romantic landscape designs of Bridgeman and Kent. Commissioned by estate owner Sir Richard Hoare - Influenced by Claude Lorrains Paintings - Ex of the high romantic style - Gardens separated from the mansion - It consists of a closed walk around an artificial lake - The walk begins at the temple of Flora and passed around to a grotto, reaches the Pantheon, through the rock arch to the temple Apollo - Use of Greek and Roman iconography from Lorrains paintings - Artificial landscape modeled after nature - Influenced by landscape paintings, especially Lorrains