Gaseous CO2 is contained in a vertical pistoncylinder assembly by a piston of mass 50 kg and having a face area of 0.01 m2 . The mass of the CO2 is 4 g. The CO2 initially occupies a volume of 0.005 m3 and has a specific internal energy of 657 kJ/kg. The atmosphere exerts a pressure of 100 kPa on the top of the piston. Heat transfer in the amount of 1.95 kJ occurs slowly from the CO2 to the surroundings, and the volume of the CO2 decreases to 0.0025 m3 . Friction between the piston and the cylinder wall can be neglected. The local acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . For the CO2 determine (a) the pressure, in kPa, and (b) the final specific internal energy, in kJ/kg.
Baumeister & Bushman. Social Psychology and Human Nature (4th Edition). Early social psychologists postulated that modern life makes ppl vulnerable to alienation and exploitation by giant social systems, we learn who we are from other people and interactions, modern humans act less on morals than on following crowd Allport (1954) attitudes were “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary American social psychology” Lewin behavior is function of the person and situation Triplett (1897) nervous energy in presence of another bicycle rider promotes performance. Fishing reel kids Ringelmann group vs individual pull on rope. People tended to slack off in big group European thinkers migrated to America after WWII to study behaviors of soldiers and Nazis, after 1980s focus turned to prejudice and stereotyping Morphed behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis from 1950s, using scientific approach to measure behavior, thoughts, feelings, inner states Attribution: explanations people come up with to explain behavior of others Social cognition: how people think about people and social world in general Social psychology aims for broad understanding of social factors that influence how human beings think, act, and feel, focuses on particularly on normal adult human beings Concerned with effect of other people on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Emphasizes how people react to world around them and how small changes in immediate circumstances can produce substantial changes in behavior Better understand people in valid and reliable way. Answers philosophy questions with data Anthropology: study of human culture Economics: study of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services History: study of past events Political science: study of political organizations and institutions Sociology: study of human societies and groups that form those societies Psychology: study of human behavior Most heavily borrowed methodological tools from cognitive psychology Philosophy: love of wisdom, deal with problems by thinking carefully and systematically about them Applied research: focuses on solving particular practical problems Basic research: focuses on general understanding of basic principles that can be applied to many diff problems World knowledge = accumulated common wisdom not relied on by scientists, start with common sense 1. States problem 2. Formulates testable hypothesis 3. Designs study collects data 4. Statistical methods are used to test data for consistency with hypothesis 5. Reports study results/publishes Hypothesis: idea about the possible nature of reality; a prediction tested in an experiment Within-subjects design: participants are exposed to all levels of IV Between-subjects design: participants are exposed to only one level of IV Theories: composed of constructs (abstract ideas, built by specifying dimensions of researcher) that are linked together in logical way Independent variable: any observable event that causes person to do something, created by researcher and not affected by anything in experiment , different from measured variables (age, gender, intelligence, personality) Dependent variable: any observable behavior a person produces that depends on IV Operational definition: classifies theoretical constructs in terms of observable operations, procedures, and measurements Confederate: someone secretly working for researcher amongst participants Frustration-aggression theory: events are more frustrating if you are close to goal than if you are far from goal Construct validity of the cause: extent to which IV is valid representation of theoretical stimulus Construct validity of the effect: extent to which the DV is valid representation of theoretical response Experiment: a study in which the researcher manipulates an IV and randomly assigns people to groups Random assignment: each participant has equal chance of being in each group Institutional Review Board: committee that makes sure that research study conducted in university settings is ethical. Must contain at least one scientist, one nonscientist, and one person not affiliated with university Consent form: doc that participants receive before study beings, contains info about study procedures so participants decide whether or not to participate Demand characteristics: cues in study that suggest to participants what researchers’ hypothesis is Deception studies: research that withhold info from participants/intentionally mislead them about purpose of study Debriefing: oral/written statement participants receive at end of psych study; fully informs participants and answer questions and reduce/eliminate stress/harm experienced from study Quasi-experiment: type of study in which researcher can manipulate an IV but cannot randomly assign participants to conditions Internal validity: extent to which changes in IV caused changes in DV Confounded: occurs when the two effects of variables can’t be separated Stimulus sampling: using more than one exemplar of a stimulus Reactance: an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom Field experiments: experiment conducted in real-world setting Experimental realism: the extent to which study participants get so caught up in procedures they forget they are in experiment Mundane realism: refers to whether setting of an experiment physically resembles the real world External validity: extent to which findings from study can be generalized to other people, settings, and times Correlational approach: nonexperimental method in which researcher merely observes whether variables are associated/related Correlation: the relationship/association between two variables Correlation coefficient: statistical relationship/association between two variables Meta-analysis: quantitative lit review that combines stat results from all studies conducted on topic Random sample: wherein each person in pop. has equal chance of being selected Population: total number of people under consideration Margin of error: stat measure of amount of random sampling error in survey’s results Reliability: measure that gives consistent results Validity: refers to whether measure actually measures what it purports to measure Psyche: broader term for mind, encompassing emotions, desires, perceptions, and indeed all psych processes Nature explains that people are born certain way, genes, hormones, brain structures dictate how we act Culture explains what people learn from parents, society, and experiences De Waal nature vs culture isn’t fair because without nature you have nothing but whether particular behavior is because of nature or from both. Nature is first, culture builds on Nature: physical world around us, laws and processes, entire world Theory of evolution (Darwin): explained how change occurs in nature (how to keep on living – keep on living and to reproduce) Changes occur in genes passed down by parents, so natural selection decides which traits are to keep and to disappear in generations Natural selection has two criteria for choosing traits: survival and reproduction Survival: living longer which depends on circumstances in environment Reproduction: producing babies, creating many offspring who will create many offspring Mutation: new gene/combination of genes Biological evolution occurs biologically, physically Being social has benefits, improves survival and reproduction Social animals have to have something inside them that makes them recognize each other and want to be together because it is hard to do so Dunbar concluded that bigger brains (orbital prefrontal cortex) are linked to having larger and more complex social groups (smarter, more relationships) Inner processes serve interpersonal functions Social animals: seek connections to others and prefer to live, work, and play with other members of their species (acting together) Humans are special in that they are cultural animals: the view that evolution shaped human psyche so as to enable humans to create and take part in culture (elaborate division of labor, preserving knowledge, we have history, may help strangers, more options to resolve disputes) and that other creatures are limited to having a culture because they don’t have as many inner processes Culture: kind of social system, advanced way of being social, information- based system that includes shared ideas and common ways of doing things (praxis) that enables groups of people to live together to get what they need and influence basic human needs 1. Shared ideas: culture is a world of shared ideas that enables us to interact with more people of the same culture, brain puts priority on info that is directly experienced as shared with someone else 2. Exists as a network linking many diff people but constantly moving together because we depend on each other for resources 3. As a praxis: practical ways of doing things, in addition to basis of shared beliefs and depending on shared ideas 4. Based on meaningful info (law, morals, history, symbols, knowledge) Money is a human tool to get what we want. Also a drug because it gives pleasure falsely indicating survival and not always biologically beneficial Humans find meaning through connecting with others Experiences are generally shared with others, whereas objects are used by oneself alone. Solitary experiences were no valued/meaningful any more than material possessions We are the only species to decide what to eat based on morals Nature and culture shape each other, culture help people satisfy needs, nature influences culture - more abundant in low disease environments = less prejudice, more open to sex, individualism: everyone takes care of himself and is free to act, more abundant in places with pathogens = not open, less interested in risks, collectivism: maintaining relationships and getting along is more important than the self’s wants Natural selection has shaped humans to be cultural (more, better than just social) The human psyche was designed for culture, human mind was designed in part to enable it to take part in advanced kinds of social life In social psychology human behavior is shaped mostly by genetic forces Duplex mind: idea that mind has two diff processing systems Automatic system: operates mainly outside of consciousness, processes multiple things at once, impulsive, runs everything, fast, outside of conscious control, unintentional, inflexible, poor at combining info, estimates, simple operations, serves deliberate system, indicates alarming things Deliberate system: conscious system, reflective (best thing to do) for unfamiliar situations, slow, controllable, guided by intention, flexible, good at combining info, precise, ruled-based calculations, can perform complex operations, overrides automatic system vital to life in culture Kahneman reasoning (automatic) vs intuition (deliberate) Garnering acceptance is one basic job of human self Inner processes and structures (brain = nature) evolved for sake of improving interpersonal relations, emotions promote social, social promote motivation to be productive Self-control is one important psych process that enables people to live in culture and follow cultural rules, involve thinking, feeling, doing Selfish impulse vs. social conscience in the human psyche Stigma: trait that others perceive as highly undesirable and makes them want to avoid said person for fear of being contaminated by them Tradeoff: choice in which taking/maximizing one benefit requires either accepting a cost or giving up another benefit, Delay of gratification, humans can form ideas about distant future and chance behavior on those ideas even though we want to have one right answer Putting people first = Unlike animals, we emphasize resolution over detection, or perceiving things more precisely and distinctly geared toward understanding others, natural tendency to look to each other first Self consists of; designed to gain social acceptance, play social roles 1. Self-knowledge/self-concept: a set of beliefs about oneself, self- awareness, self-deception 2. Interpersonal self/public self: the image of the self that is conveyed to others, self-presentation: task of making good impressions on other people, member of groups, relationship partner, social roles, reputation 3. Agent self/executive function: the part of the self involved in control, decision making, self-control, taking charge of situations, active responding Turner diff cultures and diff historical eras differed in ideas about true self by placing emphasis on either emphasizing inner feelings as the true self of on the way the person acts in public Independence vs interdependence – diff attitudes toward the self and diff motivations as to what the self mainly tries to accomplish results in diff emphases about what the self is Independent self-construal: a self-concept that emphasizes what makes the self diff and sets it apart from others Interdependent self-construal: a self-concept that emphasizes what connects the self to other people and groups Culture has many diff roles which individuals take position in, social identity shows interplay of individual organism and larger cultural system Flexible enough to take new roles and change roles Self-awareness: attention directed at the self (public and private), involves evaluating the self, can make people behave in socially desirable manner if they choose to change (inner processes serve interpersonal functions), vital for self-regulation, helps us adopt perspective of other people “people first” Private self-awareness: looking inward on private aspects of the self (emotions, thoughts, desires, and traits) Public self-awareness: looking outward on the public aspects of the self that others can see and evaluate Standards: ideas/concepts of how things might possibly be (ideals, norms, expectations, morals, laws, history, future) When people are aware that they fall short of standards, the bad feeling leads to either change: to remedy the problem such as improving, or escape: avoid or reducing self-awareness Public self-consciousness: thinking about how others perceive you Self-regulation: the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Self-awareness theory, a self-aware state is unpleasant 1. People learn about themselves from others 2. Cftjt Cooley looking-glass self: idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others, 1- you imagine how you appear to others 2- you imagine how others will judge you 3- you develop an emotional response as a result of imagining how others will judge you Mead generalized other: most self-knowledge comes from feedback received from other people, whether particular individuals or combination of other people’s views There isn’t a good match between how everybody thinks about someone and how the person thinks about himself/herself so it’s not the main source of self-knowledge Misunderstanding of people arise when people do not always tell the truth (reluctant to criticize someone and complain) and that people are not always receptive to feedback from others Introspection: process by which a person examines the contents of his/her mind and mental states Nisbett and Wilson (1977) criticized introspection because they said that people do not really have much in the way of privileged access so when they look inside they just make mistakes, guess, or give what they assume are plausible/socially desirable – their study showed that people do not realize how their minds work Sometimes people do know what they are thinking and feelings but do not know why Introspection is a conscious process part of the deliberate system supported by the automatic system People are the best judges of their own traits that are hard to observe like feelings (neuroticism) and not for traits like intelligence, creativity Theory of social comparison: examining the diff between oneself and another person Upward social comparisons: comparing yourself to people better than you Downward social comparisons: comparing yourself to people worse off than you Theory of self-perception: people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling and not necessarily introspection Intrinsic motivation: wanting to perform an activity for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity because of something that results from it Overjustification effect of self-perception theory: tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with rewards that transform play into work Factors for overjustification effect include the timing of the reward, initial liking Extrinsic motivation can be good if intrinsic motivation is low but if intrinsic is high, extrinsic undermines it Phenomenal self/working self-concept: image of self that is currently active in the person’s thoughts, when you’re self-aware you are usually only aware of small part of all info you have about yourself. Each situation summons up only a few relevant aspects of the self = phenomenal self Motives for wanting self-knowledge Appraisal motive: broad, open-minded curiosity for the self beginning with things of medium difficulty, main preference is for info that is both important and reliable Self-enhancement motive: desire to learn favorable/flattering things about the self Consistency motive: desire to get feedback that confirms what the person already believes about himself/herself Thinking allows people to make use of meaning, which actions we take depend on its meaning James “thinking is for doing” Conscious thinking is for communicating but also means doing Basic use of thought is to perform actions mentally before doing them physically Process of choosing involves whittling the full range of choices down to limited few and involves more careful comparison of the highlighted options Status quo bias: simple preference to keep things the way they are instead of changing and choosing Omission bias/default option: tendency to take whatever course of action does not require you to do anything Anticipated regret leads to decision avoidance Decisions may become too many and too difficult to choose Brehm Reactance theory: idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom/options and seek to reclaim/reassert them, makes you want the forbidden option more, may make you take steps to reclaim lost option, may feel/act aggressively toward person who restricted your freedom People are sensitive to how much freedom of choice they have, people are motivated to gain and preserve choices Dweck entity theorists: those who believe that traits are fixed, stable things and thus people should not be expected to change, prefer to do things they are good at to gain credit and disliked feedback and interpret other’s behavior as reflecting traits Incremental theorists: those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement, enjoy challenges and do not mind criticism, interpret other’s behavior as caused by temporary states and external factors Learned helplessness: belief that one’s actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying Belief in free will is valuable for society People perceive that they make some choices and that some choices are freer than others Greater freedom is marked by greater behavioral flexibility, controlled processes, and self-regulation Humans need fairly complex and flexible decision-making apparatus Understanding and deciding requires flexible capacity for making those decisions Deci and Ryan Self-determination theory: people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy and internal motivation, people have innate need for autonomy rather than by external factors – PERCEIVED FREEDOM They derive more satisfaction, have greater confidence, and perform better and creativity, contribute to vitality, self-esteem, general well-being, less prone to passivity, alienation, mental illness Panic button effect: a reduction in stress/suffering due to belief that one has the option of escaping/controlling the situation, even if one doesn’t exercise it Ideas and meanings are important to action, meaning connects things so an action has meaning when it’s connected to other things/events One type of important type of meaning links action to goal: idea of some desired future state, in turn are the meaningful link between values and action Can be called personal projects/personal strivings, tells you how to pursue and uphold values Classical motivation theory: motivation increases as one gets closer to goal, low point for motivation tends to be in middle of the project