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Separate streams of steam and air flow through the turbine

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781118412930 | Authors: Michael J. Moran ISBN: 9781118412930 139

Solution for problem 4.108 Chapter 4

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition

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Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781118412930 | Authors: Michael J. Moran

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics | 8th Edition

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Problem 4.108

Separate streams of steam and air flow through the turbine and heat exchanger arrangement shown in Fig. P4.108. Steady-state operating data are provided on the figure. Heat transfer with the surroundings can be neglected, as can all kinetic and potential energy effects. Determine (a) T3, in K, and (b) the power output of the second turbine, in kW.

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The New Imperialism A) What was the New Imperialism  Lasted from 1880­1914  World War I ended this period  Time of Europe conquering new territories for collection and use  Primary Africa and Asia  What is new about the “New” Imperialism from informal imperialism  Uses the Industrial Revolution to create new military technologies to conquer native tribes to use their land (a) Steam powered ships to transport soldiers long distances faster (b) Gatling gun was a mobile machine gun used to shoot down large amounts of people  “Old” or Formal Imperialism (a) Going to land for economic access (trade)  “New” or Informal Imperialism (a) Completely annexing territories to use their resources at will  What happened around 1880 that brought about a switch from economic access to annexing land B) European Countries in Africa  European countries met together and divided Africa amongst themselves  Ethiopia and Liberia are the only countries that have remained independent  In 1878, there were only small slivers of land annexed in Africa  England had land going all the way from Egypt to Cape Town C) European Countries in Asia  England conquered lands from India to Eastern China D) Document: Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria by Lin Tse­Hsü (1839)  Lin Tse­Hsü is a Chinese ambassador  Chinese emperor’s envoy  Britain wants tea, silk, rhubarb, candy, ginger, cinnamon, satin, and chinaware  4pm was made into tea time (every person in British territory sits down to drink tea)  Chinese exports become a large part of British identity  Conflict because China didn’t want anything in return making trade not possible  British Opium Trade  British start an opium trade to resolve the conflict (a) Chinese NEED opium (b) Got opium from India (i) Only in places under control of Britain plant opium (ii) Plants it from hill to hill  Emperor is in a “towering rage of fury” (a) Chinese have become strongly addicted (i) Have been getting strung out in opium dens (ii) Not much work is getting done (b) Emperor made severe restrictions on the use and distribution of opium (c) Emperor’s son overdoses on opium and dies  Chinese labeled anyone who was not them as barbarians  Emperor sends Lin Tse­Hsu as an envoy to Canton, China to negotiate with  Begins Opium War  Emperor burns all the opium stores  British responded by destroying junk ships  War broke out and Britain easily won  Treaty of Nanjing  Made opium trade legal  Opened up the port of Hong Kong for Britain’s use  Example of New Imperialism because…  China came over the direct political control of the British government (a) Started by just wanting economic access, but used force when they didn’t get their way  Diacritical difference­ most important distinguishing factor E) Document: The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling (1899)  Rudyard Kipling  A British Nationalist born and raised in India and educated in England  Famous for writing The Jungle Book  Parents were a part of the imperial staff  Son was killed in WWI  Won the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature  Written to imperialist women in the US after the Spanish­American War  Tells the imperialists to go out to the field in India where their hard work that will now be rewarded  Says they have been given a “lightly proffered laurel” meaning they were given congratulations for not much work  Tells them to keep going taking land to civilize the whole world  Says they are helping native populations  Bringing economic market  Bringing industry  Taking labor and land  Changing the culture from their savage ways (a) Changing their “heathen religion” to Christianity  Says they liked being in bondage of their savage ways  What is the “white man’s burden”  Sending the country’s “children” to sacrifice themselves to help civilize the savage peoples around the world  Believes the white men are “civilized” and need to bring civilization to others even though they will be hated for it. (a) Believes British white men are better than all others and should be the ones to civilize the world F) Document: Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell (1936)  George Orwell  Born to English Parents living in India  Went to Eton in England for his education  Was a great intellectual, but decided to join the Burmese police force (a) There he saw the evils of British Imperialism and began to hate it.  Hated being in Burma  Burmese treated the English badly (a) Buddhist monks jeered at the British all day (b) Population would make snide remarks behind his back and when they were a safe distance away.  Burmese held in prisons were treated badly (a) He oversaw those being flogged with bamboo sticks (b) Prisons were dirty  Elephant had broken loose and went on a mad rage in the town  Destroys many huts and even kills a man by trampling  Orwell sees the elephant standing and eating peacefully in the field  Crowd of Burmese followed him and expected him to shoot the elephant with his high­powered rifle (a) Didn’t actually want to since it seemed to have calmed down.  Killed the elephant to avoid looking like a fool to the people (a) Shot it five times with the first rifle, but didn’t kill it. (b) Used his smaller rifle and it still didn’t die and finally left G) Document: Imperialism by J. A. Hobson (1902)  Hobson  Son of a English newspaper owner  Became an important figure in the progressive movement in politics  Saw the effects of British imperialism on South Africa  Imperialism is a dangerous foreign policy  When British explorers get themselves in trouble with people in foreign countries, they can call on the British army to deal with the native peoples  Uses a lot of their resources on one person  Imperialism serves the higher class individuals  Helps them expand their wealth (a) The capitalist classes have invested all they can in the Industrial Revolution so they have to expand it across the borders to other countries (b) They have the money to invest in explorers  Distracts the problems surrounding the Condition of England Question with the spectacle of a British Empire

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Chapter 4, Problem 4.108 is Solved
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Textbook: Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics
Edition: 8
Author: Michael J. Moran
ISBN: 9781118412930

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Separate streams of steam and air flow through the turbine