Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) burns in dry air according to the reaction C2H5OH 2.161O2 3.76N22 S 0.32CO2 1.68CO 3H2O 8.1216 N2 Determine the (a) airfuel ratio on a mass basis. (b) equivalence ratio. (c) percent theoretical air. 13.
Chapter 12 Notes — “Exercise: the environment and special populations”▯ ▯ • Environmental factors (heat, cold, altitude, air pollution) can affect your exercise routine.▯ • Homeotherms: animals that regulate their body temperature to remain close to a set point. Humans regulate their body temperature around the set point of 98.6 F▯ • Exercise in a hot environment:▯ • Since the muscles already produce heat as a byproduct of muscular contraction; when exercising in heat, the body produces excess heat that it must release in order to prevent a dangerous rise in body temperature. If the body cant stay below 105 F, then heat injury (bodily injury that can occur when the heat load exceeds the body’s ability to regulate body temperature. AKA heat illness) will take place. (Heat cramps, dizziness, nausea, clammy skin, rapid heartbeat, lack of sweating, seizures, hot/dry skin, dehydration)▯ • Heat cramps: muscle spams, twitching.▯ • Heat acclimatization—acclimatize: to undergo the physiological adaptations that help the body adjust to environmental extremes.▯ • Heat loss during exercise:▯ • Convection: heat loss by the movement of air or water over the surface of the body▯ • Evaporation: the conversion of water (sweat) to a gas (water vapor); the most important means of releasing heat from the body during exercise.▯ • Humidity: the amount of water vapor in the air.▯ • Exercise in a cold environment:▯ Hypothermia: a signiﬁcant decline in body temperature due to exposure to cold. (results • in: loss of judgement)▯ • Exercising at High Altitudes:▯ • lower barometric pressure limits the amount of oxygen transported in blood—less oxygen reaches muscles, therefore, exercise tolerance and VO2max are reduced.▯ • breathing gets deeper and faster, heart rate rises, the body will decrease its water content as a way of coping with the stress of altitude exposer.▯ acute mountain sickness (AMS): headaches, nausea, weakness, dizziness▯ • • Exercise and air pollution:▯ • ozone: a gas produced by a chemical reaction between sunlight and the hydrocarbons emitted from car exhausts. This is irritating to lungs and airways causing tightness in the chest, coughing, headaches, nasuea, throat and eye irritation, and bronchoconstriction.▯ • carbon monoxide: a gas produced during the burning of fossil fuels such as gasoline and coal; also present in cigarette smoke. Reduces blood’s oxygen carrying capacity ▯ • Fitness during pregnancy:▯ • exercise has numerous beneﬁts for pregnant women (less weight gain, fewer discomforts, shorter labor)▯ • do not participate in high risk injury sports, don’t lie on back▯ • Fitness during older adulthood:▯ • beneﬁt bone and joint health, since body fat increases with old age, exercise will keep it down.▯ • Sarcopenia: loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging▯ • Presbyopia: farsightedness that results from weakening of the eye muscles.