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The metal niobium (Nb) has a BCC crystal structure. If the

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781118324578 | Authors: William Callister ISBN: 9781118324578 140

Solution for problem 3.70 Chapter 3

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition

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Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781118324578 | Authors: William Callister

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition

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Problem 3.70

The metal niobium (Nb) has a BCC crystal structure. If the angle of diffraction for the (211) set of planes occurs at 75.99 (first-order reflection) when monochromatic x-radiation having a wavelength of 0.1659 nm is used, compute thefollowing: (a) The interplanar spacing for this set of planes (b) The atomic radius for the Nb atom

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Week 1 Chapter 1: The First Civilization of North America US: A Narrative History - Vocabulary: • Nomads: a member of a group of people who have no fixed home and who move about, usually seasonally, in pursuit of food, water, and other resources • Ecosystem: a community and/or region studied as a system of functioning relationships between organisms and their environments • Mesoamerica: the area stretching from present-day central Mexico southward through Honduras and Nicaragua, in which pre-Columbian civilizations developed • Egalitarian: exhibiting or asserting a belief in the equality of humans in a social, political, or economic context - An American Story - The Power of a Hidden Past • Stories told about the past have power over both the present and the future - History books ignored or trivialized the continent’s recontact history. But the reminders of that hidden past are everywhere • Man-made earthen mounds, some nearly 5,000 years old, exist throughout easter North America - Observers in the colonial and revolutionary eras looked on such sites as curiosities and marvels - But in the 1830s and 1840s, as Americans sought to drive Indians west of the Mississippi, many began thinking differently about the continent’s ancient sites • Politicians, writers, and some scientists dismissed the claim that North America’s ancient architecture had been built by the ancestors of 1 Week 1 contemporary Indians and instead attributed the mounds to people of Europe, Africa, or Asia - Recently, archaeologists working across the Americas have discovered in more detail how native peoples built the Western Hemisphere’s ancient architecture • 15,000 years of human habitation in North America allowed a broad range of cultures to develop, based on agriculture as well as hunting and gathering - A Continent of Cultures • Recent breakthroughs in archaeology and genetics have demonstrated the first inhabitants of the Americas arrived from Siberia at least 15,500 years ago - Gradually these nomads filtered southward, some along the Pacific coastline, others making their way along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains and onto the northern Great Plains • This first colonization of the Americas coincided with, and perhaps accelerated, profound changed in the natural world - The first Americans had to adapt to changing conditions by hunting smaller animals with new, more specialized kinds of stone tools and by learning to exploit particular places more efficiently • It was that between 10,000 and 2,500 years ago distinctive regional cultures developed among the peoples of the Americas - Those who remained in the Great plains turned to hunting the much smaller descendants of the now-extinct giant bison - Those in the deserts of the Great Basin survived on small game, seeds, and edible plants - Those in the Pacific Northwest relied mainly on fishing 2 Week 1 - Those east of the Mississippi, besides fishing and gathering, tracked deer and bear and trapped smaller game animals and birds • Over these same centuries, what once seems to have been an original, common language evolved into regional dialects and eventually into a multitude of distinct languages • Cultures of Ancient Mexico - To the south, pioneers in Mesoamerica began domesticating plants 10,000 years ago. Over the next several thousand years farmers added other crops to an agricultural revolution that would transform life through much of the Americas. Because many crops could be dried and stored, agriculture allowed these first farmers to settle in one place - The Olmecs, the first city builders in the Americas, had a cultural influence that gradually spread throughout Mesoamerica • By about 100 BCE the Olmecs’ example had inspired the flowering of Teotihuacan from a small town in central Mexico into a metropolis of towering pyramids - More impressive still were the achievements of the Mayas, who benefited from their contacts with both the Olmecs and Teotihuacan • Their priests developed a written language, their mathematicians discovered the zero, and their astronomers devised a calendar more accurate than any existing - Neither the Olmecs nor the Teotihuacan survived. They thrived for centuries and then declined - In the middle of the thirteenth century the Aztecs, a people who had originally lived on Mesoamerica’s northern frontiers, swept south and settled in central Mexico 3 Week 1 - By the end of the fifteenth century they ruled over a vast empire from their capital at Tenochtitlan, an island metropolis of perhaps a quarter of a million people • The Aztec ruler, or Chief Speaker, shared governing power with the aristocrats who monopolized all positions of religious, military, and political leadership, while the commoners—merchants, farmers, and craftworkers—performed all manual labor • Famers, Potters, and Builders of the Southwest - Recent discoveries suggest that Mesoamerican crops and farming techniques began making their way north to the american Southwest as early as 2100 BCE - The most successful full-time farmers in the region were the Mogollon and Hohokam peoples, two cultures that flourished in New Mexico and southern Arizona during the first millennium CE • Both tended to cluster their dwelling near streams, which allowed them to adopt the systems of irrigation as well as the maize cultivation - Their neighbors to the north in what is now known as the Four Corners Region of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah are today more properly known as the Ancestral Pueblo peoples The Ancestral Puebloans adapted corn, beans, and squash to the relatively • high altitude of the Colorado Plateau • They filled their towns with religious shrines, astronomical observatories, and stations for sending signals to other villages • Chiefdoms of the Eastern Woodlands - About 1000 BCE residents of a place now known as Poverty Point in northeastern Louisiana fashioned spectacular earthworks These structures might have been sites for studying the planets and stars, and • other mounds served as the burial places of their leading men and women 4 Week 1 • All these mounds attest powerfully not only to the skill and sheer numbers of their builders but also to the complexity of these ancient societies, their elaborate religious practices, and the wide scope of their elaborate religious practices, and the wide scope of their trading networks - By the twelfth century CE Mississippians had emerged as the premier city- builders north of the Rio Grande, and their towns radiated for hundreds of miles in every direction from the hub of their trading network at Cahokia • What commanded every eye were the structures surrounding the plazas— more than 100 flat-topped pyramidal mounds crowned by religious temples and elite dwellings Life on the Great Plains • - Cahokia’s size and power depended on consistent agricultural surpluses • More typically Great Plains communities depended on hunting and foraging, migrating to exploit seasonally variable resources • The aridity of the plains made it a dynamic and unpredictable place to live - During times of reliable rainfall, bison populations boomed, hunters flocked to the region, and agricultural communities blossomed alongside major rivers - But sometimes centuries passes with lower-than-average precipitation, and families abandoned the plains for eastern river valleys or the foothills of the Rocky Mountains • Survival in the Great Basin - Some peoples west of the Great Plains also kept to older ways of subsistence. Among them were the Numic-Spyeaking peoples of the Great Basin 5 Week 1 • Small family groups scoured their stark, arid landscape for the limited supplies of food it yielded, moving with each passing season to make the most of they environment • Because the desert heat and soil defined farming, these bands usually numbered no more than 50 people • The Plenty of the Pacific Northwest - The rugged stretch of coast from the southern banks of present-day British Columbia to northern California has always been an extraordinarily rich natural environment Agriculture was unnecessary in such a bountiful place. The ancestors of the • Nootkans, Makahs, Tlingtis, Tshimshians, and Kwakituls speared or netted salmon, trapped sea mammals, gathered shellfish, and launched canoes • They also permitted a culture with the leisure time needed to create works of art as well as an elaborate social and ceremonial life • The Frozen North - Most of the present-day Canada and Alaska was inhospitable to agriculture As a result, the peoples of both the Arctic and Subarctic regions survived by • fishing and hunting - The Inuit, or Eskimos, of northern Alaska harvest whales from their umiaks, boats made by stretching walrus asking over a driftwood frame - In the central Arctic they tracked seals - The inhabitants of the Subarctic moved from their summer fishing camps to berry patches in the fall to mouse and caribou hunting grounds in the winter - Innovations and Limitations 6 Week 1 • The first Americans therefore expressed, governed, and supported themselves in a broad variety of ways - Over the course of the millennia nearly all the Western Hemisphere’s peoples found ways to change the natural world in order to improve and enrich their lives • America’s Agricultural Gifts - No innovation proved more crucial to human history than native manipulation of plants • Like all first farmers, agricultural pioneers in the Americas began experimenting accidentally • They unintentionally began the process of domestic cultivation. Soon they began deliberately saving seeds from the best plants and sowing them in gardens • Landscapers - Native peoples in the precontact Americas transformed their world on a grand scale • In the Andes, Peruvian engineers put people to work, creating an astonishing patchwork of terraces, dykes, and canals designed to maximize agricultural productivity - Recently scholars have begun to find evidence of incredible manipulation of landscapes and environments in the least likely places • At least one-eight of the non flooded Amazon rainforest was directly or indirectly created by humans - Native North Americans likewise transformed their local environments Ancestral Puebloans cut down and transported more than 200,000 trees to • construct the floors and the roofs of the monumental buildings in Chaco Canyon 7 Week 1 • By taming the waters of the Salt and Gila Rivers with the most extensive system of irrigation canals anywhere in the precontact North America, the Hohokam were able to support large populations in a desert environment • Throughout North America’s great eastern and western forests, native peoples periodically set low fires to consume undergrowth and fallen trees. In this way the continent’s first inhabitants managed forests and also animals • The Influence of Geography and Climate - No matter how great their ingenuity, the first Americans were constrained by certain natural realities • Unlike Eurasia, which stretches across the Northern Hemisphere along an east-west axis, the Americas fall along the north-south axis, stretching nearly pole to pole - Consequently, the Americas are broken up by tremendous geographic and climactic diversity, making communication and technology transfer far more difficult than it was in the Old World - The north-south orientation of the Americas erected natural barriers to plant and animal transfer. Sometimes the transfer never happened at all before European contact • By erecting barriers to communication and the spread of technology, then, the predominantly north-south orientation of the Americas made it more difficult for the hemisphere’s inhabitants to build on one another’s successes • Animals and Illness - As people across Eurasia embraced agriculture and started living with one another and with domesticated animals in crowded villages, towns, and cities, they created ideal environments for the evolution and transmission of infectious disease 8 Week 1 • Eurasians therefore paid a heavy price for living closely with animals. Yet victims who survived acquired immunity to the most common diseases - Human populations in the Western hemisphere seem to have been relatively free from major communicable pathogens • Indigenous Americans domesticated turkeys, dogs, Muscovy ducks, and guinea pigs but raised only one large mammal—the llama or alpaca • With virtually no large mammals to domesticate, Native Americans were spared the nightmarish effects of most of the world’s major communicable diseases—until 1492 Old World infections raged through indigenous communities, usually doing the • greatest damage to adults whose robust immune systems reacted violently to the novel pathogens - Crisis and Transformation • North America has always been a place of tremendous diversity and constant change - Because of a complex and still poorly understood combination of ecological and social factors, the continent’s most impressive civilizations collapsed suddenly and mysteriously • Enduring Peoples - The survivors of these crises struggles to construct new communities, societies, and political systems • In the Southwest descendants of the Hohokam withdrew to small farming villages that relied on simpler modes of irrigation 9 Week 1 • Refugees embarked on a massive coordinated exodus from the Four Corners region and establish new permanent villages that the Spaniards would call the Pueblos • The Mogollon have a more mysterious legacy, but some of their number may have helped establish the remarkable trading city of Paquime - The dramatic transformation remaking the Southwest involved tremendous suffering • Southwesterners had to rebuild in unfamiliar and often-times less productive places • The most successful new settlements were large, containing several hundred people, and constructed in doorless, defensible blocks - In the Eastern Woodlands the great Mississippian chieftainships never again attained the glory of Cahokia, but key traditions endured in the Southeast • In the lower Mississippi valley the Natchez maintained both the temple mound- building tradition and the rigid social distinctions of Mississippian civilization • Other Muskogean-speakers rejected this rigid and hierarchical social model and gradually embraced a new, more flexible system of independent and relatively egalitarian villages that forged confederacies to better cope with outsiders - To the North lived speakers of Iroquoian, who’s communities mixed farming with a hunting/gathering economy and lived in semipermanent towns - By the fifteenth century the coastal communities from southern New England to Virginia had adopted agriculture to supplement their diets, but those in the colder northern climates with shorter growing seasons depended entirely on hunting, fishing, and gathering plants • North America on the Eve of Contact 10 Week 1 - By the end of the fifteenth century, 5 to 10 million people lived north of the Rio Grande—with perhaps another million living on the islands of the Caribbean • These millions lived in remarkably diverse ways - Some peoples relied entirely on farming; others on hunting, fishing, and gathering - Some practiced matrilineal forms of kinship, in which women owned land, tools, and even children. Among others, patrilineal kinship prevailed, and all property and prestige descended in the male line - Some societies were roughly egalitarian, whereas others were rigidly divided into nobles and commoners and servants or slaves - Some were ruled by powerful chiefs; others by councils of village elders or heads of family clans; still others looked to the most skillful hunter or the must powerful shaman for direction - When Europeans first arrived in North America, the continent north of present- day Mexico boasted an ancient and rich history marked by cities, towns, and prosperous farms Before 1492, though, the civilizations of North and South America remained • populous, dynamic, and diverse Davidson, US: A Narrative History, 7th edition 11

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Textbook: Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction
Edition: 9
Author: William Callister
ISBN: 9781118324578

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The metal niobium (Nb) has a BCC crystal structure. If the