The concentration of Si in an Fe-Si alloy is 0.25 wt%. What is the concentration in kilograms of Si per cubic meter of alloy?
POLI 370 – Lecture 19 Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act o It is illegal for employers to discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, or sexual orientation. o Exceptions to This Act: Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs): qualities that employers can consider when making employment decisions. These qualities must be related to the job duties. For example, a department store may request a female model to showcase clothes specifically created for females. Seniority and merit systems: employees are allowed to be rewarded for their time or work ethic. Testing and educational requirements. Dothard v. Rawlingson o In this case, a prison system created height and weight requirements for security guards. o Many females did not reach those requirements, and they sued on the grounds of discrimination. o The Court determined that those specific height and weight requirements were not justifiable, since they do not necessarily impede security guards’ job duties. o Same sex requirements, however, are justifiable on the grounds of security. Equal Pay Act of 1963 o Both genders must be paid equally if their jobs require the same amount of skill, effort, and responsibility, regardless of title. o AFSCME v. State of Washington: AFSCME argued that Washington State knew about gender pay disparity and did not choose to rectify the situation. The Court ruled in favor of Washington State because there was no single factor that caused the pay disparity, and the state could not implement a corrective policy as a result. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 o This congressional act made it illegal to discriminate people that are at least 40 years old. o This act only pertains to companies that have at least 20 employees. o In certain situations, age can be a bona fide occupational qualification if age impedes the completion of one’s job duties or causes risk or harm to other people. Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation o This corporation discriminated against a woman because she had a sixyearold child. o The Court ruled that businesses cannot impose genderspecific standards or ask genderspecific questions during the application and interview process; personal choices, such as childbirth, should not interfere with employment. Theories of Discrimination o Disparate Treatment: intent to discriminate based on a protected characteristic. o Disparate Impact: when a policy has an adverse impact against a group and there is no business need for the policy. o Strong Basic in Evidence: there must be strong evidence of disparate impact in order for a business to legally allow disparate treatment. POLI 370 – Lecture 20 Most discrimination occurs because of race, sex, retaliation, or age, respectively. General Guidelines on Employees o Selection Procedures: a set of values to help employers decide not to employ people because of discrimination. Guidelines of Sexual Harassment o Title VII prohibits gender discrimination in employment. o Types of Sexual Harassment 1. Quid Pro Quo: links employment outcomes to the victim’s granting of sexual favors. Essentially, this is an exchange of favors. The harasser is usually in a higher job position than the victim. 2. Hostile Environment: allows an intimidating or offensive working environment to affect a person’s performance or psychological health. This covers any actions that put employees in an uncomfortable situation, especially if the Human Resources department does not follow up after a victim informs the department of these conditions. Sexual Harassment o Employers are responsible for sexual harassment acts of the supervisors, whether or not the supervisors are aware of those acts. o Employers are liable for sexual harassment acts of coworkers if the employer knew or should have known about those actions. o Employers are responsible for sexual harassment in the workplace even by people who are not employees. o Appropriate and immediate actions by the employers will prevent them from being sued on the grounds of sexual harassment. o Appropriate Action Entails 1. The employer should require regular sexual harassment training. 2. The employer should create a sexual harassment policy. 3. The employer should have an immediate response to any sexual harassment allegations. Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. (1993) o This case made it easier for victims to win sexual harassment lawsuits. o This case also established that severe psychological injury does not have to be proved; the victim only needs to show that the employer allowed hostile and/or abusive work conditions. Employers Reactions to Sexual Harassment o Employers should establish a sexual harassment policy and communicate the policy at regular intervals. o Employers should train employees to avoid sexual harassment. o Employers should immediately investigate sexual harassment allegations when they arise. Examples of Disability Accommodations o Altered work schedule o Special equipment o Job restructuring or reassignment o Employerprovided assistance. The employees, however, usually have to pay for this assistance. Examples of Religious Accommodations o Religious expression and beliefs should be accommodated in the workplace, but employees cannot communicate their religious beliefs to their clients. o Employers and employees should respect religious attire and appearance. o Employees must make these requests in writing. EnglishOnly Rule o The court would rule in the employer’s favor if the Englishonly rule promotes safety, protects product quality, and/or stops harassment. o This rule must be justified by a compelling business necessity. For example, this rule would be allowed if a business dealt solely with Englishonly clients. Mismatch Theory o This theory deals with AfricanAmerican affirmative action. o AfricanAmericans are usually in the bottom half of law school or medical school classes; this may occur because they had fewer resources to begin with. o Should affirmative action be broadened