Taking the logarithm of both sides of Equation 6.19 yields log sT = log K + n log PT (6.33) Thus, a plot of log sT versus log PT in the plastic region to the point of necking should yield a straight line having a slope of n and an intercept (at log sT = 0) of log K. Using the appropriate data tabulated in 6.30, make a plot of log sT versus log PT and determine the values of n and K. It will be necessary to convert engineering stresses and strains to true stresses and strains using Equations 6.18a and 6.18b.
Exam Study Guide Chapter 7 Review Notes Social Stratification – applies to nations, people, and societies. The layering of people. The idea is universal but no universal system. Slavery – ownership of people, based on debt or punishment. First slaves were women who owned no property or had any power. Not universal. Bonded labor = indentured servants. Caste System – Status determined by birth and you stay that way forever. Endogamy – marring in one’s group/caste, and exogamy is marrying outside of one’s group/caste. Apartheid – the separation of races. 4 different racial castes and still dominates South Africa today. Estate system – people who rule lands. Clergy – The middle tier that was between nobility and commoners. Commoners were serfs, born into estate and little to chance to move up. Nobody really moved up in estate system. Women would be owned by their husband. Class system – more open than estate and based on possession of money. Born into class so it’s an ascribed system but owning more money means you move up in class. The fluid boundaries allow for social mobility. Gender is the bases of social stratification and Karl Marx says that your class is determined by your relationships to the means of production/factory. The bourgeoisie are the owners of productions and the proletariat are the workers. Class conscious is the awareness of a common identity, based on position in the means of production. Eventually workers will revolt and overturn capitalists, but false class consciousness leads to mistaken identification with interests of capitalists. Class conscious prevents revolts because workers aren’t aware of their position. Max Weber – property, prestige, and power determine social class and property was only a single piece. 4 Reasons why stratification is inevitable: Society has to make sure most important positions are filled, some positions have to be more important than others, important positions need to be filled by the most competent people, and people in important positions have to be rewarded more. Meritocracy – form of stratification in which all positions are formed from merit. Conflict is the basis of stratification, not everyone has the same opportunities. Mosca’s Argument – power leads to stratification. Inequality leads to power and people in power use law and government to maintain their power. Marx believed human history is the history of class struggle. Two things that have to happen are class consciousness and revolution. Lenski – groups in same social class are competing for same resources. Small societies – Functionalists holds true and for advanced societies it is mostly conflict. Neocolonialism – Economic and political dominance of least industrialized nations. Colonialism – enslavement of other nations by industrialized nations. Chapter 8 Review Notes Wealth = Income and assets minus debts. Distribution of income – Top 20% make half of total income. Distribution of property = 10% of population owns 70% of wealth. 1% own 1/3 of nation’s wealth. Power is the ability to carry out will despite resistance. No decision in the U.S. made without power elite – C. Wright Mills. Democratic façade – does our vote count We feel that we are represented but really are not. Prestige – the respect people get to occupations and accomplishments. Status inconsistency is that we judge based on highest status. Wright’s modification of Marx’s Model 1. Capitalists 2. Petty Bourgeoisie (small owners) 3. Managers 4. Workers Physical health – quality of healthcare and worsens for lower class. Mental Health – higher class can afford treatment. Family life – lower class has higher failure in marriages and lower class teaches different. Education directly influences occupation. Lower class also holds on firmly to religion because of lack of structure. Higher class usually votes republican and lower class votes democratic. Never hear of white collar crime and don’t see identities because of large resources for higher class to hide that. Social Mobility - Intergenerational – change in family members, go up and down from parents. - Structural – large changes in social structure - Exchange – movement in ladder but balance remains. Women have less social mobility. Glass ceiling is the positions not achievable no matter how much work is done. Poverty is measured by food bought by family in a year (x4). Children more likely to be in poverty than adults or elderly. Aspects of feminization of poverty are divorce, births to unwed mothers, and lower wages.