A cylindrical rod of diameter 14.7 mm fabricated from a Ti-5Al-2.5Sn titanium alloy (Figure 8.20) is subjected to a repeated tensioncompression load cycling along its axis. Compute the maximumand minimum loads that will be applied to yield afatigue life of 1.0 106 cycles. Assume that datain Figure 8.20 were taken for repeated axial tensioncompressiontests, that stress plotted on thevertical axis is stress amplitude, and data weretaken for a mean stress of 50 MPa.
Time Out: The Ultimate Consequence Review all the slides well Understand these concepts: What is time out When should it be used effective when it is used sparingly, compassionately, and correctly – Children who repeatedly engage in negative behaviors (habitual behaviors) such as punching, pushing and pinching – This time is used to help the child/children calm down and make them see the connection between time out and their inappropriate behavior – Interrupt the negative pattern of behavior How does one prepare the group or individual for time out (Group) Teachers give children an opportunity to talk about time out in advance and participate in the planning for it (Individual) Teacher has to establish that a particular behavior is habitual The adult states in advance in what circumstances it will be used It should be implemented every time this misbehavior occurs How do we implement timeout Child is warned, and if the behavior continues he or she is removed as suitable Adult reflects on the child’s feelings and provides basic information so that he or she will know what to expect The timing is important Adult remains with the child all the time Not forced upon the child. If the child doesn’t respond you might just want to reflect on the child’s feelings and keep quiet. Continuously talking to the child or lecturing just makes it more frustrating for the child Any attempts to hurt the adult have to be stopped. Adult is not antagonized in the process If peers are curious, the teacher should not ignore that situation and remind children about their talk on time out and further explain that is his time out to feel better Following the time out situation discussion should be held with the child. The child who has completed time out should be should be acknowledged for claming himself down and finishing the task Later the adult who implemented the time out should have a pleasant contact with the child Understand how time out is misused in many instances It is no use if you use timeout for every infraction of classroom rule or event It is not useful if one uses timeout as a threat It is not appropriate to use timeout to humiliate the child It is not appropriate to use timeout in lieu of helping children learn better alternatives to problem behaviors It is not appropriate to hold the child in time out for a unreasonable amount of time under the pretext of claming the child down It is not appropriate to place children in time out because it is simply easy and one way of adult relief Understand and learn how to use personal messages, reflect on the use of personal message coupled with warning and follow up Remind the children of the rule Pause for few seconds Warning – Rephrase this as an eitheror statement that repeats the rule and then tells the child what will happen if he or she doesn't follow it Pause for a few seconds Follow Through – Restate the warning and preface it with words such as “I told you….”. Then repeat the consequence as a statement and then begin that statement with “now” Helping children understand and Accept Limits What are consequences Consequences are events that make a particular behavior more or less likely to happen in the future Types of consequences Positive : acknowledge children when they maintain and follow a particular rule Negative : constructive actions aimed at helping children recognize the impact their behavior has on themselves and others Review well different types of consequences and understand each well Rehearsal: Allows kids to rehearse the behavior of an action that’s an appropriate behavior Restoration: make child restore the situation that resulted from inappropriate acts Temporary loss of privilege/deprivation: Not allowing child to use materials when they are being misused Deciding on consequences – How do we decide on various consequences, what factors affect our choice Understand what kind of consequence is suitable at that time What do you feel comfortable doing You might have to alter the type of consequence (change from natural to logical) Don’t indulge in things that don’t seem to be working for you Children with Disabilities Inclusion – What does it mean Integrating every child into an activity and provided the opportunity to learn with different styles and services in class Issues pertaining to inclusion PROBLEM +Special Education focuses on Deficit Perspective (what a child can’t do rather than what a child can do) +Special Education believes/d in the use of reinforcers like stickers, stamps, stars (behavioral perspective) to alter behavior SOLUTION +create interdisciplinary program for both early childhood and early childhood education +Encourage teachers from special and regular early childhood education to work together Understand various accommodations done for children with disability in the classroom Review the concept of transitions and routines Routines +Create a predictable routine +System of checking off the completed items or tasks of the schedule so that the child has a visual tracking record +Daily schedule for when homework assignments are collected and recorded can help students organize their materials +Sometimes seeking help from others to check their schedule or work helps them eliminate their frustrations Transition +Individual Directions and for the group is very helpful (Verbal Instructions) +Visual calendar to remind the child of the next activity +Present positive aspects about the change of activity +Different sound ques are helpful for signaling Vulnerabilities (Read each slide carefully on the topic related to Children from LGBT families).. You may choose to ignore the research aspect discussed on this topic. +Welcome and encourage same sex parents and all parents to participate in school and to share things that are meaningful to their families + Be thoughtful not to identify, or single out children reared by samesex parents. Let children or families identify themselves + Use terms families or parents rather than fathers and mothers + Celebrate a “Person You Love Day” rather than Mother’s Day and Father’s Day + We cannot allow children to be harmed Vulnerabilities (How to support ELL Learners) Review and Learn strategies that are proven beneficial for ELLs (English Language Learners)/DLLs (Dual Language Learners) Using parentese (emphasize on a noun for children that aren’t old enough to talk) Total Physical Response (TPR): using objects and visuals to explain vocabulary child might not know +ELLs needs lots of nonverbal cues while speaking (gestures and facial expressions) and learn key phrases from child’s native tongue to communicate in certain ways Vulnerabilities What strategies can be employed to help children exposed to violence or loss and separation from their parents in the classroom VIOLENCE +Form friendships in the classroom +Buddy reading/ peer tutoring +Teach conflict resolution skills +Being a support system and listening ear to the child +Quiet corner for comfort/safety +Predictable routines +Extra encouragement LOSS OR SEPERATION +Predictable routines +Outlet for positive and negative emotions + Example of Teacher’s absence note to class +Class scrapbook: documenting accomplishments +No parent bashing in classroom or judging parents’ actions +Provide both parents with all information +Have parents + children work together on “All About Me” book +Positive attitudes What factors can promote resiliency and self esteem in children Attachments and Friendships Matching Discipline Causes to Discipline Approaches Understand the different causes of behavioral problem (physical, social and emotional immaturity) Social and Emotional Immaturity Emotional Regulation – Not able to regulate and manage their own behavior Perspective Taking – Inability to tune into others feelings Teacher Guidance is helpful and essential in both these situations Physical Immaturity Inability to sit still Immature coordination Understand the importance of organized physical activities Used as a time for reflection and assessment Review how organized physical activities can be used to asses behavioral problems The Direct Approach: modeling, descriptions, and imitating the steps to give instruction (helps teachers to know whether child has a problem following direction) The Guided Approach: activities set up for child to learn on their own Understand how aggression be caused by various factors (review slides) Child abuse from lack of knowing how to emotionally regulate their impulses Child aren’t able to regulate their emotions after separating from parents at young age Analyzing Discipline Problems Review the least and most intrusive approaches to behavior problem (Review the slides well and read the chapter) (read the last chapter POSSIBLE CAUSES agetypical behavior inappropriate adult expectations child’s lack of skills, and communication, emotional, and social regulation lack of understanding (child doesn’t understand why behavior isn’t appropriate) misleading from models or inappropriate reinforcement unmet emotional needs serious emotional or physical problems