×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Materials Science And Engineering: An Introduction - 9 Edition - Chapter 12 - Problem 12.36
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Materials Science And Engineering: An Introduction - 9 Edition - Chapter 12 - Problem 12.36

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

(a) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to Li2O. If

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781118324578 | Authors: William Callister ISBN: 9781118324578 140

Solution for problem 12.36 Chapter 12

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781118324578 | Authors: William Callister

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction | 9th Edition

4 5 1 375 Reviews
14
1
Problem 12.36

(a) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to Li2O. If the Ca2 substitutes for Li, what kind of vacancies would you expect to form? How many of these vacancies are created for every Ca2 added? (b) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to CaCl2. If the O2substitutes for Cl, what kind of vacancies would you expect to form? How many of these vacancies are created for every O2 added? 12.3

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 1 Later Adolescence and Family Tasks Lecture Notes 3/25/16 Later Adolescence (18­24) Focus on Identity and Individuation: dominant anxiety of later adolescence is identity work Identity Triangle (again): need to establish a working model of ourselves in order to be an adult  Occupation o Career decision making process—career decision making is a drawn out process that is based on information and experiences interacting with one another. Interaction between education, collecting information, and having experiences. Experience is a big part of career decision making. You can’t decide one day on the spot, you need the experience and exposure to information on different careers. Career decision making takes time. Only 20% of college graduates are working in the fields related to their major 10 years after graduating. This suggests that we should encourage people to be educated and have experiences and then make decisions about their career path instead putting so much emphasis on career decision in college.  Lifestyle  Values Psychosocial Crisis: Identity versus Identity Confusion  As you move into your 20’s, you work on a more mature identity.  Identity confusion: to launch yourself into adulthood, you have to have a fairly mature identity. The absence of that identity manifests in confusion about who you are. Manifestations of Identity Confusion  What is an Anxious Identity o They don’t commit to any working models. Can’t settle on values, lifestyle, and a career­­ they are seekers without a path. There comes a point in time when we are expected to achieve a place of comfort with our identity so we can make choices and decisions. If this doesn’t happen, you are perpetually in an adolescence stage of life.  Anxiety and Identity Foreclosure o There is anxiety to make these decisions and to commit to a working model of yourself. This can result in foreclosing: some people prematurely shut down working on their identity and make decisions prematurely about their identity in an effort to protect themselves from this ongoing anxiety. These people have huge regrets when they get older because their identity choices don’t bring them joy. They don’t feel like they are growing over time, they feel more stifled. Ex. People who hate their job. They didn’t take the time to gather information and have the experience to make a decision of what career they want. They feel locked in and become bitter and angry. Central Process: Role Experimentation HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 2  In order to have an identity, you need to experiment with different identities and spend time collecting information. Experimentation involves experiencing yourself in different situations, environments, doing things with different people and different places.  According to Erikson, in order for this experimentation to take place, you should have a Psychosocial Moratorium. For youth, there should be a moratorium period on psychosocial development. Instead of pressuring people more to work on these anxiety provoking issues, they should back off and pressure less and provide youth with a period of time where they are free to experiment without excessive pressures and anxieties to make decisions. It should be a period of time when you are given permission to play and experiment. Ex. Letting your child take a year off from college to volunteer in a different country. Ex. Going abroad or taking a gap year. Individuation (from both Peers and Family)  Adolescence must establish a sense of individuation from both their peers and families. Young people are moving towards a place where they act with greater authority over their lives, where they act with a greater sense of autonomy, and are able to self regulate. Reflected in young people becoming increasingly better at taking responsibility for their life, taking responsibility for their care, and acting in an age appropriate autonomous way. Reducing your dependence on parents and peers. Moving towards becoming financially less dependent on others. Ex. If parents have financial control on you, you feel less individuation because they have that power over you with decision making for example. Indicators of Individuation –Balancing Autonomy and Connection in Age­appropriate ways Reworking Patterns of “Dependencies”  Financial Dependencies: parents pay for many things, which makes them have more power over their adolescent child  Functional Dependencies: ability to manage your day to day care. Manage your bills, take car of your car, do things instead of having parents to it for you.  Emotional Dependencies: when we are, we give other people power over us because we attribute too much significance to their approval or disapproval of us. The power we give to other people with their approval or disapproval of us. As you grow older, this should be decreased.  It is critical for adolescence as they move into their 20s to become more and more individuated. Be less functionally, financially, and emotionally dependent on others. Individuation can be conceived of as both a requirement for Identity Development and an Outcome of Identity Development! .  Individuation From Peers as a Foundation for “Individual Identity.” o As you individuate from your peers, you are way more likely to experiment and act on what is important you you rather than succumb to peer pressure HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 3  Individuation From Family as a Foundation for “Individual Identity.” o As you individuate from your parents, their approval and disapproval matters less and they have less control over you in that aspect o They exercise less control over your life  Individual Identity as a Foundation for Individuation from Peers  Individual Identity as a Foundation for Individuation from Family Family Tasks for the Family With Adolescents System needs to provide “support” for Identity and Individuation  Reworking Boundaries: the primary task for a family with adolescents is the reworking of boundaries. Parents have to have less involvement with your life and provide greater autonomy and independence.  Renegotiating Patterns of Authority: a subtask. Have to trust that their child will make their own decisions. When children are young, it is reasonable for parents to expect they will do what they are told. As children merge and go towards adulthood, parents don’t really have a right to tell them what to do. They can make suggestions, but they have to give up exercising excessive authority and trust they will take control over their own life. Note on Parent/Adolescent Conflict as related to the reworking of Boundaries  The job of adolescence is to push for autonomy. Parents say “give me proof that you can be trusted to act with high autonomy and I will give you control over your life.” This creates conflict. The conflict isn’t because they have different values, it is because one is pushing for autonomy and one is pushing for evidence of autonomy. This conflict is necessary to rework that balance. Individuation enhancing: give them the opportunity to earn authority over their lives and experience themselves as autonomous. Note on Parent/ Adolescent Conflict as related to the renegotiation of Patterns of Authority  Power Legitimacy Continuum – distinctions between authority and oppression: conflict in the adolescence years revolve around whether kids accept the parents’ authority over them as legitimate. Parents have to be authorities and also constantly provide opportunities for the kids to experience individuation. If kids feel oppressed, they will not view the parent as legitimate. o Legitimate Expressions of Parental Power  Youth view parents as having this legitimate authority HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 4  Leads to the experience of intimacy: the key to intimacy is all around authority and autonomy dynamic. It is based around kids experiencing the parents’ control over them as being legitimate. o Non­Legitimate Expressions of Parental Power  Youth feel unfairly dominated and control  Leads to an escalation of conflict  Erodes foundation of intimacy Sabatelli, Ronald. “Later Adolescence and Family Tasks.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 25 March 2016. Lecture. HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 5 What is Necessary for Parents to be willing to Renegotiate Boundaries and Patterns of Authority  It is necessary for youth to push for greater autonomy and authority  Parents require “evidence” of responsibility The Authority­Responsibility Dance! Note on the Lies that Adolescents Tell!  Research shows that all adolescents lie. They lie because it is a way of bypassing the conflict that occurs around the dynamic between authority and responsibility. This is a way of an adolescent to claim authority without going through the conflict. Why do some parents need to be “pushed” to rework boundaries and patterns of authority  What do they have to be anxious about  Parents don’t give up authority easily because they are anxious about giving their children control and authority. When you give adolescents authority, there is a lot to be concerned about such as drunk driving. When they go off to college, the parents have no way of knowing if you are going to class and have no access to your grades unless you share them. The task for parents is to demonstrate individuation enhancing patterns: no different than the toddler years patters.  Genuine Concern Individuation Enhancing Patterns:  Parents need remain present but not intrusive in an age appropriate way. Don’t tell you what you should do or force you to do things.  Empathically responsive to the tensions experienced by youth (requires de­centering and the ability to self­sooth). Important for parents to be empathically responsive to the tensions of their age appropriate stress. Parents need to monitor their use of “should”. “Should” creates tension between the parent and child. Individuation Inhibiting Patterns: more anxiety than less anxiety  Expelling: parents are telling you you are on your own. Communicates that you don’t matter and have no support. Amplifies pressure to find out identity issues.  Binding: parents don’t let go. The child never experiences competency and autonomy. Prevent them from developing skills and resources for being autonomous.  Delegating: the parents encourage their kids to follow a certain path to enhance the parent’s identity. The parents are vicariously living through and deriving an identity from the kid’s emerging identity. This robs kids of the opportunity of exploration and HDFS 1070 Lecture Notes 3/25, Page 6 experience. You see this more where kids early on are identified as being special in some ways; when the kid has a gift for the violin and the parents keep telling him or her they have to do this as a career. The kid is not given an opportunity to explore and experience other things. 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 1 Adolescence 3/23/16 Lecture Notes ADOLESCENCE AS A STAGE IN LIFE Built upon epigenetic assumptions­ what happens in the earlier stages of development serves as a foundation for development and each stage has very specific stage tasks that serve as a foundation for further development. Define Adolescence­ transitional stage after childhood and before adulthood. It is critical for individuals to be able to form a coherent identity because that coherent identity serves as a platform for the early adult years. Individuals need a comfortable identity to succeed as a young adult and on. Early versus Later Adolescence  Early (13–18)  Later (19–25 & rising) Why Two Stages Instead of One ­Because adolescence now takes longer for people, which elongates the full entry into adult status Why is it Taking Longer  Requirements for adulthood are more complex o Have to have more job skills, more maturity, have to make more money, have to live more independently than ever before  Economic factors (interact with one another): o Inflation: assimilate those pressures into your daily life. Pay more for food than ever before, pay more for fuel, housing, medical costs. Everything is at a much higher rate. Education has risen. This puts people in a downward economic spiral. o Economic downward mobility: we are the first cohort to experience this. The cohorts before us experienced upward mobility (meaning you would exceed your parents’ standard of living). Likelihood of achieving your parents’ standard of living and succeeding your parents’ standard of living is low today. Pressures in Adolescence – revolve around IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT Identity: a work in process which revolves around 3 different factors: The Identity Triangle: continuous tension throughout the adolescence years. Continuously required to take a stand for these values. This pressure comes from everywhere and everyone.  Life style 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 2  Occupation  Ideology Identity Development Process ­In Early Adolescence the tensions revolve more around lifestyle and ideology than around occupation Crisis becomes, then, one of: Group Identities vs Alienation  You continuously deal with everyone but more so deal with your parents pressuring you to figure out those 3 factors (lifestyle, occupation, ideology). You are also pressured to go along with peers.  We become less egocentric in our adolescence years. Cognitive egocentrism: we become more capable of understanding other people’s points of view. Becoming more capable of understanding the norms for conformity—when a young child thinks about his life in an egocentric way (non­cognitive egocentric), he or she doesn’t reflect about what other people think about him or her and is unaware of conformity. As they become less egocentric, they become more aware of conformity pressures, social expectations and demands, which makes them more vulnerable to societal pressures and peer pressure.  Peer Pressure (group identities vs. alienation): we define ourselves by the groups we are connected to and also define ourselves to the groups we are alienated from. There is a dynamic tension between these 2 forces which helps us develop our lifestyle, values, and career. Ex. Tension between a group of students who strive to do their best in school and students who blow all their work off and skip class. These early working models provide a foundation for a more mature working model that will eventually find our identity. o Group identities: pressure to develop your identities within a group. Align ourselves with certain groups based on their values and ideologies. Exists on a continuum: the degree by which you can achieve your goals in a certain peer group. The peer groups that we fit into and get along with are people who reduce our anxiety. (who we are) o Alienation: powerful component of the identity development process. It is a negative form of involvement with groups. Don’t subscribe to the norms, goals, expectations of that group. In opposition to what the group stands for. Makes a stand about who we are. Alienated from the groups that make us most anxious. (who we are not) Central Process of Early Adolescence: Peer Pressure  Peer pressure compels us to consider how and to what degree we are connected to or alienated from various social systems 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 3 Alienation is reflected in the degree to which one feels that one can achieve their goals by participation in various social systems.  exists on a continuum  involves reactions that we have to various social systems 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 4 Attitudinal Manifestations of Degrees of Alienation:  normlessness: don’t subscribe to their norms, they have no meaning for us  meaninglessness: what provides them with a sense of meaningness has no meaning to us  powerlessness  social isolation  purposelessness:  Alienation becomes a problem if you wind up with no group to fit into. Ultimately those who are completely alienated from the peer world, their families, their teachers: they feel a profound sense of normlessness, meaninglessness, powerlessness, and isolation. Reactive Systems: one may be more or less alienated from these groups. The systems that you connect with are just as important because they provide you with information that you use to form your identity which you use as a platform to serve for your adult years. A red flag comes up when kids are alienated from multiple system and the only group that they wind up fitting with is equally alienated from others. When you run into kids in early adolescence years like this, they are scary because they feel no purpose or meaning. They endorse a point of view where the values of society are insignificant. They also might have sociopathic tendencies. Types of reactive systems are:  family  school systems/teachers  peers  community/neighborhoods  Note – for each individual there could be other systems of influence that he or she reacts to o Church o Employers Early Identity, thus is grounded in:  We define ourselves through our positive connections to others  We define ourselves in reaction to the systems we feel alienated from  These define our values, lifestyle choices, help to shape our career objectives 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 5  Kids who are really at risk are the ones who are alienated from multiple systems. The more you are alienated from different systems, the more isolated and alone you are. This is not a comfortable place for young people, so alienated children find others that are just as equally alienated. Their group belief becomes: everyone is a jerk, stupid, and there is no meaning in what other people value. Kids like this become more reactive and are more likely to go down the destructive path and organize their identity to be antisocial, non subscribing to morality and ethics, and more likely to form a collective distain to others. This could lead to maladaptive and deconstructive ways. These behaviors are reflective of their formed identity. “Hypothesis: the more one is alienated from family, school, and neighborhood systems (who are extensions of parental authority) the more the connections to peers become important. Hypothesis: the more one is alienated from family, school, and neighborhood systems, the more likely one will find a group to connect with that is also alienated from these systems. Hypothesis: peer groups that share high degrees of collective alienation from family, school and neighborhood systems are likely, also, to be alienated from other peer systems. Hypothesis: the more identity is based on reactive alienation from family, school, neighborhood and peer systems, the greater the likelihood that one is likely to engage in maladaptive modes of adaptation – the more likely, in other words, one’s identity is likely to lead them to act in maladaptive ways.” (Sabatelli) Modes of Adaptation to Alienation: compelling question here is what does a person do when he or she is negatively involved with a broad array of social systems – to put it another way, what does a person do when he or she believes that these broader systems serve as an obstacle to personal development  When we are alienated there are different ways to adapt to alienation: Pay attention to the definitions, not the words!  Rebellion – What they do is they attempt to change the systems to find a better fit between them and those they are alienated from. They try to change the goals of others in groups they are alienated from in order to have a better fit. Ex. If an outcast because don’t do drugs (think they are evil) and everyone else does, go out and preach to others about the dangers of drugs and alcohol. Alienation makes them anxious and they respond in a way to get others to conform to their view.  Self Estrangement –you accept the alienation as a defining feature of yourself, become okay with not fitting in. It takes a long time for 3/23/16 Lecture Notes, Page 6 people to become comfortable with their alienation because it is painful and uncomfortable. Not critical or angry at others, just on own path and know that he or she doesn’t fit well with other groups.  Conformity – You change yourself to better fit with the broader system. Even though its not really YOU, you do it to fit in. These pressures overcome/overwhelm your own values. Oftentimes an individual will experience helplessness because they can’t be themselves. When you see certain adolescences that are depressed, a working hypothesis is to encourage a therapist to find out if they are caught up in the cycle of conforming to fit in when the they don’t really see it as who they are. Ex. Even though you don’t think getting high is a good thing to do, you do it anyway to fit in and matter to others.  Retreat – abandon any hope of connection to broader systems; they just retreat. There is no point in being a part of anything, no hope and no connection. Retreat into a world of relationships where they all share a disregard for values and attitudes of broader systems. Engage in 1 or 2 predominant destructive ways of retreating:  self­destructive retreats – derive one’s identity from committing to behaviors and beliefs that others find objectionable but are at the same time quite harmful to the self. Results in them being identified as a problem and having difficulties with authority. Ex. Drinking heavily, don’t go to school, always giving the finger to others  other­destructive retreats –Get angry and commit to the destruction of other systems. Ex. Habitually vandalizing things, feel it is okay to harm others, disregard laws and moral codes of conduct, and act out in anger to others they are alienated from.  All of us experience some degree of alienation. In the mode of responding to alienation, we are defining our identity and moving forward in a way that results in us to be connected to society with unique values and beliefs and aspirations. Super alienated people never reach that and experience a lot of dysfunction. Sabatelli, Ronald. “Early Adolescence and Alienation.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 23 March 2016. Lecture.

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 12, Problem 12.36 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction
Edition: 9
Author: William Callister
ISBN: 9781118324578

Since the solution to 12.36 from 12 chapter was answered, more than 423 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, edition: 9. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 12.36 from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/14/17, 08:41PM. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781118324578. This full solution covers the following key subjects: added, Vacancies, Cao, created, every. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 1041 solutions. The answer to “(a) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to Li2O. If the Ca2 substitutes for Li, what kind of vacancies would you expect to form? How many of these vacancies are created for every Ca2 added? (b) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to CaCl2. If the O2substitutes for Cl, what kind of vacancies would you expect to form? How many of these vacancies are created for every O2 added? 12.3” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 74 words.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

(a) Suppose that CaO is added as an impurity to Li2O. If