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For the following processes, is the work done by the

University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321675460 31

Solution for problem 1DQ Chapter 19

University Physics | 13th Edition

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University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman

University Physics | 13th Edition

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Problem 1DQ

For the following processes, is the work done by the system (defined as the expanding or contracting gas) on the environment positive or negative? (a) expansion of the burned gasoline–air mixture in the cylinder of an automobile engine; (b) opening a bottle of champagne; (c) filling a scuba tank with compressed air; (d) partial crumpling of a sealed, empty water bottle as you drive from the mountains down to sea level.

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Solution 1DQ We know that, when the work done by the system, it is positive and when the work done on the system, it is negative. (a) expansion of the burned gasoline–air mixture in the cylinder of an automobile engine: Here, the system will do the work, as the gas molecules will heat the engine which will increase pressure finally and make the piston move. So, the work is positive. (b) opening a bottle of champagne: By this, the work done is negative as someone else has to open the bottle. After opening the champagne come out with high pressure and the work done is positive. (c) filling a scuba tank with compressed air: While filling, the work is done by you, so it is negative. The system is resisting the pressure increase but you are pouring air. (d) partial crumpling of a sealed, empty water bottle as you drive from the mountains down to sea level: Here the outside pressure gets increased and the bottle tends to crash. The work here is done on the system by increasing the outside pressure. But the bottle increases the inside pressure as the volume is decreased. We know that, W = pressure × volume. The work done is negative here.

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Chapter 19, Problem 1DQ is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics
Edition: 13
Author: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321675460

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