For the support of Prob. 1.45, knowing that the diameter of 39the pin is d 5 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load isP 5 20 kN, determine (a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) therequired values of b and c if the factor of safety for the woodenmember is the same as that found in part a for the pin.
Extra Credit: ‘The Abolitionists’ 29th January @ 7pm Library Auditorium (see syllabus for extra credit information) 27 January 2014 English Colonies: North and South LESSON IDEA: After a troubled start, England established northern and southern colonies for different purposes, including capital gain and to set an example of model communities. These distinct purposes paved the way for problems in the future. Want to make money and set an example to the world, but mostly to England. Spain has been in the New World for a while (gold) and France is getting into the trading business. 1558: Elizabeth I: English start making their way into the New World, exploration and stealing/plundering 1570: Sir Frances Drake (privateer / pirate) Stealing and plundering gold and etc. from Spanish galleons Made 2nd ‘round the world voyage (1580s) England: Colony in Ireland Lots of resistance!!!! for hundreds of years Ireland (Catholic) and England (Protestant) Ideas about how to colonize in New World (most barbaric methods used) 1585: Sir Walter Raleigh Landed at Roanoke (“Lost Colony”) in the Outer Banks area of North Carolina to establish a colony / supply base for privateers out of England. Leader of Roanoke left for England to get supplies for the colony, was delayed for years by England’s war with the Spanish. When expedition returns, found Roanoke abandoned. “CROATOAN” carved into a tree nearby but no inhabitants found. MYSTERY OF HISTORY: No one knows what happened to Roanoke. Aristocrats and other useless people with no idea how to survive may have turned to the Indians for help, They may have abandoned the colony for a better place to live, They may have died. 1606: King James II Grants charter to merchants to go to the New World. (merchants, aristocrats, gentlemen, etc.) Incorporated as the Virginia Company of London: a jointstock operation. People buy stock in the company and get returns based on profits made in the new world. A way of reducing risk, spreading out investments, seems safe way to get money from New World, especially after Roanoke. (“Virginia” named for the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth I) 1607, Spring At the New World they find a place surrounded by water on 3 sides, fairly inland from the ocean, water deep enough to park ships. Jamestown Land with about 104 men and boys following the Virginia Company instructions. Build a fort settlement, but they are not prepared for winter. Thyphoid, Dysentery, and Yellow Fever ravage the 1st wake of settlers. (James River is a tidal saltwater river from the Atlantic Ocean. Settlers were using it to dump their sewage but it didn’t get swept out to sea. Saltwater sewage contained dysentery and was not fit to consume.) Spring 1607, Settlers were aristocrats, tradesmen, merchants, and artisans, not farmers. Not used to working. The only food comes from the Native Americans. “NO FARMERS = NO FOOD” John Smith Takes control of the settlers and declares “He who does not work, does not eat.” Talks to Powhatan leader (Wahunsunocock) to settle difficulties b/w Indians and settlers. After helping the English settlers for a while, Wahunsunocock/Powhatan sees settlers as a drain on society and is tired of giving them handouts. Commands his people to stop helping the settlers. Winter (November) 1609 / 1610, The Starving Time, Jamestown has about 500 inhabitants. With no help from the Indians, the population drops down to about 60 people. Inhabitants have no food reserves and no clean water. Kill and eat horses, pigs, rats, snakes, etc. Some eventually start exhuming corpses or, in one case, a man kills and eats his wife. Some bully indians into giving them food. If the colony fails, investors in England will lose all the money they have invested in the colony. Jamestown must survive and thrive. 1614, John Rolfe (husband to Pocahontas) Elite member of the Jamestown colony Starts importing tobacco plants from the West Indies and experimenting on it. By 1670, millions of pounds of tobacco are being exported to England Tobacco becomes one of the first cash crops; Is a foundation crop for the economy of Jamestown. Trustees of the Virginia Company develope the Headright System A person coming to Virginia as a new investor will receive 100 acres Will get another 50 acres per person brought with them to the New World (including family members and indentured servants) 16101622: More than 9000 people come to Jamestown; Most are indentured servants. By 1622, only 2000 are alive. Headright System becomes the foundation for plantation economy that will take hold in New England (Jamestown and Virginia) and in the South. 1619 @ Jamestown, Virginia 1. Change to government 2. Change to population 3. Beginnings of slavery in America 1. The Virginia Company decides to create a representative government. Establish the House of Burgesses to replace martial law. Virginia Company sends six (6) representatives and each city (4) in Virginia and each plantation (7) will get to send 2 elected representatives. 2. Women start coming to Jamestown in significant numbers. The Virginia Company commands virgin women to Jamestown to become wives to the male inhabitants to begin families. “A fit hundred… maids, young and uncorrupt, to make wives to the inhabitants and by that means make the men more settled and less movable.” By the end of 1619, 19 women are sent to Jamestown. 57 more young maids were sent a few years later to be wives to the men. 3. Beginning of slavery in America (as indicated by historians) John Rolfe purchased about 20 African slaves (indentured servants) from Dutch traders to work the tobacco fields in Jamestown. MASSACHUSETTS 1606 Virginia Company of Plymouth received its charter (also a joint stock company) Wanted to create a model community in a corrupt world instead of making money MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY Historians identify this as “The Beginning of America” Henry VIII creates the Church of England and changes the predominant religion in England. (Separatists and Puritans) Puritans think the changes the king made getting away from Catholicism are not good enough and that the Church of England should purify the church of any Catholicism / Catholic dogma. Separatists flee England to Holland (Neatherlands) but don’t like that their children are developing Dutch habits instead of English. Sail for the New World. 1620: Land at Plymouth Rock > 102 people came over on the Mayflower but only about 30 are Separatists (Pilgrims); create 1st permanent settlement in Northern US Separatists create the Massachusetts Bay Company Want to create a model community 90% of immigrants Land @ 1630 bring doctors, farmers, educators. came with families 1636: Establish Harvard College Build tax supported school system: Towns with 50+ families, must have an elementary school Towns with 100+ families, must have an elementary and secondary school. 1630 John Winthrop 1st governor of Massachusetts wrote sermon ‘Modell of Christian Charity’ (ereader: 2.4) “We must delight in each other; make each other's condition our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace.” “This shall be a city up on the hill. The eyes of all the people are upon us.” 22 January 2014 Early Colonization of North America Pacific Coast artwork can be found in modern art Ex) Seattle Seahawks logo is very reminiscent of PC rendition of an eagle. Christopher Columbus Born in Genoa, Italy Sailed for the King and Queen of Spain in 1492 to find a sea route to India and Asia @ San Salvador (in the Bahamas) thinks he’s made it to India, named the native Arawaks “indians” Key Conquistadors: Spain, Portugal fight over land until the Pope steps in to divide up the continent ownership between different countries. Ponce de Leon, sailed ~ 1513 1st European to land in Florida Searching for the NW Passage (sea route to Asia) Balboa Magellan Hernando de Soto (ex. Hernando, MS in DeSoto county) 1530/40s Buried in the Mississippi River to keep the native indians from desecrating his corpse Explored SE America, Florida, Arkansas, and other areas on and around the Mississippi River tributaries Hernan Cortez Very destructive in what is now modern Mexico Document from Cortez in the eReader Why do they matter It’s not what they found, but what they brought with them and the changes they set in motion. Columbian Exchange The widespread exchange of produce (maize, beans, squash, corn, tomatoes), animals (sheep, cattle, horses), plants, culture, weapons, human populations African and Indian slaves), communicable diseases (smallpox), technology, and ideas between the American and AfroEurasian hemispheres following: 1. the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492, 2. colonization and trade by Europeans in the Americas, and 3. the institution of the slave trade in Africa and the Americas. Some of the smallest factors in history were not people at all. It is the effects on native peoples, such as the spread of disease from the Europeans to the Native Americans. One drop of breath from a person infected with Smallpox can infect at least 1000 people. If you could survive Smallpox, you’d be immune as an adult. Since the Indians did not have any immunity to the European diseases, it spread like wildfire. Some were given Smallpox on purpose so the conquistadors could come in and take over with a minimum of resistance. Prior to the European incursion, historians estimate approximately 4 million native americans north of Mexico and into Canada. Afterwards, once smallpox is introduced, the disease spreads and kills approximately 90% of the population, leaving fewer than 60K indians after the 1800s. Fleeing infected peoples would spread the disease to other tribes. Infected peoples might not know they were infected for up to 2 weeks. Around 1793, Torch Vancouver found indians in Canada and Pacific Northwest with pockmarks and other scars from Smallpox. Communities combined and swapped stories and information and sometimes even blended in elements of Christianity. Military, environmental, cultural, economic, political conquest of the Indians in North America. LESSON IDEA In the 16th and 17th centuries, several European nations pursued empires of “God, Gold, and Glory”by establishing colonial outposts in the Americas, through which they could funnel riches back to Europe. The success of the colonies depended in large part on their relations with the native peoples. SPAIN Coronado (Francisco Vázquez de Coronado) Arrives @ Zuni (in modern New Mexico) around the same time DeSoto is exploring the Mississippi River area. Brings 300 European men, women; over 1000 Indian allies, about 1500 mules and horses Takes Zuni pueblo by force for Spain but are not prepared for winter in New Mexico Start stealing food and clothing from the Indians, raping native women, etc Pueblo Revolt Zuni revolt against Coronado and his men/allies; fairly successful on the part of the Zuni indians Juan de Oñate, 1590 Search for gold (looking for legendary city of Cibola) Brought men, women, children to make a permanent settlement Indians saw it as a complete invasion of their homeland, but did not have guns to defend themselves. Indians revolted @ Acoma, killed 11 Spanish soldiers Oñate fights back and, in turn killed about 800 and enslaved another 600 natives. Bartolome de las Casas (Spanish priest) letter/reading in eReader Advocates against enslavement of the native indians would rather convert them to Catholicism. Encourages enslaving and using African slaves. Spain, a very and predominantly Catholic country, established multiple missions for their soldiers and for the priests to convert the natives to Christianity (catholic). San Antonio (“Remember the Alamo!”) San Diego San Francisco (est 1776) Spanish / Indian children are called Mestizos. The bloodline of a person determined their position in society. The whiter you were, the higher you were placed in society (more elite). The more black or Indian you were, the lower you placed in society. People begin REALLY defining race. Priests looked at mestizos and created a symbol for them to identify with, helping to integrate the Spanish and Indian cultures: The Virgin Guadalupe Spain is dominant in North America through the 1700s, and are the most aggressive in their pursuit of God, Gold, and Glory. They took nothing short of military, cultural, and environmental genocide of the natives to accomplish this. FRANCE Giovanni de Verrazano (Italian) Sailed for France around 1524 Explored South Carolina and Maine 1st to explore New York Harbor Verrazano–Narrows Bridge (connects Staten Island and Brooklyn) Searching for the NW Passage (sea route to Asia) Jacques Cartier, 1534 ~ 1542 Searching for NW Passage (sea route to Asia) 3 trips 1. Coastline of Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada), 1534 names Canada 2. St. Lawrence River to Hochelaga, 153536 Meet Iroquois at what is modern Montreal; encouraged to keep travelling west to find “shiny metal” gold, copper, bronze, silver, etc (They don’t care what kind!) Very harsh winter; helped by native Iroquois. Still loses ~25% of his men. 3. Further west into Canada until ~1542 Find “shiny metal” pyrite (useless) French fishers start trading with the Abenaki fish and seafood for beaver Essentially start the beaver and fur trade in North America. Abenaki Algonquian (Alg.) Huron (Hur.) Iroquois (Irq) Samuel Champlain, 1608 Beaver trade explodes and causes beaver to become almost extinct Bring Indians into a capitalist marketplace To get guns to defend themselves, they must provide the required furs and good the traders want. Middle Ground blending of cultures The French are not there to colonize, but will marry indian wives, trade, etc. The Indians trade goods and services, begin to take on French customs, etc.