A nylon thread is subjected to a 8.5-N tension force. Knowing thatE 5 3.3 GPa and that the length of the thread increases by 1.1%,determine (a) the diameter of the thread, (b) the stress in thethread.
Lecture 1 January 27, 2016 Week 1 Wednesday Overview of Syllabus th Introduction to the Historiography of Science in the 18 Century o Traditional appraisals: Relatively dull interlude between 16 17 and 19 centuries “Consolidation “ of scientific revolution Not requiring a lot of originality of effort, not worthy of special attention or effort o More recent accounts Integration of scientific knowledge into western culture as a major development Requires special effort to adopt and accept th Due to emergence of culture of 18 century Original scientific contributions Contributions in field of chemistry Institutional and organizational change Spread of national academies of sciences, modeled after French academies Relations between science and the enlightenment Enlightenment characterized by strong critical thinking Neglect of tradition in 18 century is a paradox th Science in the 18 century was not a specialized activity in the way that it became after the 19 century “Science” is an anachronistic term, more like natural philosophy o [Quotation] Science in the 19 Century o Major changes in various aspects of the scientific enterprise New theories in physics and biology Discipline formation Research university adopted vs. national academies of the th 18 century A second scientific revolution Not exactly a period of change or transformation o “Natural philosophy” becomes “Science” [Quotation] Whewell introduced the term “scientist” Science is becoming a more specialized activity than natural philosophy Natural Philosophy—a system of concepts mediating between facts and philosophy; Religious aspect, nature and nature’s gods o Relation to (imperial) state and industry Imperialism and struggle for colonies in the 18 century Science is relied onto to administrate the large empires Provides access to new resources during this time as well Electrical and chemical industry—organic chemistry, electrical engineering, physics, etc. o National competition Nationalism played a huge role in attributing credit to new discoveries Competition between European countries in schools of science Certain amount of prestige attached to this th 20 Century Science o Paradox: science of 20 century has remain understudied despite its quantitative and qualitative importance Technically demanding (for both historians and readers) th George Sarton—wrote an essay about the history of 20 century science, mastering contents of science is a problem of historians when trying to write about this century Problems of sources Scientific research classified, not publicly available (nuclear physics) Problem of proximity How can it be applied to other fields Large Hadron Collider, CERN (Geneva)—huge amount of contributors Themes of the course o Episodes in the development of science Chemical revolution of the late 18 century (characterized by the discovery of molecular oxygen) Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and the development of social Darwinism and social science Institutional revolution of physics and chemistry in the 19 century New physics of the early 20 century (Einstein, Bohr, etc.) Mendelian genetics o Science in history Cultural movements: Enlightenment, Romanticism Economy: e.g. industrial revolution, industrial research Politics and the state: empire and war o Overarching questions Tension between pursuit of scientific knowledge for its own sake and development of applications Science and technology ever more closely intertwined Term, “technoscience” How does organization of science affect knowledge production Geographical shift from Europe to the United States