For the given state of stress, determine (a) theprincipal planes, (b) the principal stresses
Chapter 11 Reflection Character traits o Foreign o Anarchists o Difficulty speaking English Evidence o Loaded revolvers o Extra cartridges/shells o Went to pick up Boda’s car Boda (Italian Anarchist suspected in the Bridgewater crime 256) o Eyewitness identification o Expert ballistic testimony o Defendants evasive behavior prior to arrest ( consciousness of guilt) Issues o They were not identified in a lineup but put in a room dressed as bandits o Witnesses Louis Pelzer testified that he saw him when he heard the shots but someone else who was with him said as soon as he heard the shots he hid under his work bench Lola Andrews claimed to have spoken to Sacco when he was under a car but a later witness claimed she never saw such a thing o Ballistics Was not definitive evidence it could have matched Sacco’s but they were unsure o Use of “Consciousness of Guilt” Claimed that they acted guilty therefore were Why were they carrying guns Why were they in a hurry o Bias Hostility toward immigrants due to their threat to the American way of life Good economy= Welcome Bad economy= Threat Took jobs from “americans” Nativists were witnesses and juriors o How they fit the sterotype Open to hard labor Resourceful (kind of foreign worker feared) Anarchist therefore threat to American life Avoided the military draft Why were they convicted if though convincing evidence was so lacking Chapter 21: Prosperity and Change in the Twenties The consumer Economy 21 Assembly Line Mechanized belt that moved a product down a line where each worker performed a single small task, over and over again, until the product was completed. Five Dollar Day Initiative begun by Henry Ford in 1941 to pay his workers $5 a day more than three times the normal wage at the time. The initiative made Fords workers consumers, while also ending any efforts to unionize fords plants. Welfare capitalism Industry’s strategy of improving working conditions and providing health insurance for workers Company Unions Organizations of workers from a single company who represent workers grievances to management Blacklist Those denied employment for being known union organizers The end of the Progressive Era 21-1 Red Scares Fear that the United States was vulnerable to a communist take over Sacco and Vanzetti Italian immigrant suspects in a 1920 payroll heist who were arrested tried, and convicted of robbery and murder despite a flimsy trail of evidence. The Great Migration The movement of nearly two million African Americans out of the southern parts of the United States to the cities of the north between 1910 and 1930 most were rejecting Jim Crow segregation. Volstead Act Legislation passed in 1919 that laid down strict punishments for violating the Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition) Moonshine Homemade corn whiskey Speakeasy Clandestine bar serving alcohol during Prohibition A new Culture: The Roaring Twenties 21-2 Jazz Rhythmic music derived as part of African American Culture and popularized by both white and black musicians during the 1920s Phonograph Invention that played recorded music; pioneered by Edison in the 1870 Harlem Renaissance A cultural and political endeavor among African Americans using art and literature to protest the perpetuation of racism in American and in African American’s historic responses to it; its leaders demanded the rise of a “new Negro” who would stand up and fight American racism; lasted from 1919 to 1929 Universal Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey’s black nationalist fraternal organization that advocated a celebration of blackness, the creation of black owned and operated businesses and the dream of a return of all black people to Africa. Changing Roles for Women 21-3 National Women’s party Political lobbying coalition founded in 1913 that promoted women’s right to vote and share political and economic equality Equal Rights amendment Proposed amendment to the constitution meant to eliminate all legal distinctions between the sees such as those that permitted different pay scales for men and women doing the same job Reactions 21-4 Modernists Protestants who consciously sought to adapt their Protestant faith to the findings of scientific theories such as evolution and evidence that questioned the literalness of the bible Fundamentalists Protestants who insisted that the Bible should be understood as God’s revealed word, absolutely true down to the last detail; they asserted and upheld the main points of traditional Christian doctrine, including biblical inerrancy, the reality of miracles, and the Virgin birth Scopes Monkey Trial Famous 1925 court case that revolved around a state law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools; John Scopes, a young teacher, offered to deliberately break the law to test its constitutionality American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Organization founded in 1920 that was dedicated to fighting infringements on civil liberties, including free speech Americanization Notion that all American immigrant groups should leave behind their old ways and melt into the Anglo-Saxon mainstream Melting pot Concept that all the nations people contributed their cultural traits to a single mix, creating something altogether new Cultural pluralism Idea that each cultural group should retain its uniqueness and not be forced to change by a restrictive state or culture National Origins Act Legislation that restricted the number of immigrants permitted to enter the United States creating a series of quotas in 1924 Ku Klux Klan A paramilitary organization formed to redeem the south after reconstruction by intimidating newly freed blacks after a temporary decline the group reformed in 1915 History 146 Lecture 4/5/16 Homefront Wartime Economy : Work Force Changes Shuffling of the work force Ex. War Production board o Decrease from consumer goods Civilian government Military command 1. Government in control of war production 2.Divided resources 3. More people recruited into the defense industry 4. Government control over war economy There was a high push for marriage Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 Chapter 22 o Call loan Most common credit for stock purchases, allowed the buyer to put 10% to 50% of a stock price and borrow the rest of the money, the lender would then demand when stock fell below a certain price o Hawley-Smoot Tarif 1930’s Bill raised tarifs on foreign agricultural and manufactured goods by 50% which triggered European retaliation o Hooverville The name for the shantytown built by homeless Americans during the great depression o Breadline A line of people waiting to receive free food handed out by organizations o Dustbowl Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Texas that sufered punishing dust storms and drought (1930’s-1940’s) o Scottsboro Boys 9 African American boys accused of raping a white woman (Inconclusive evidence but they were still imprisoned) o Bonus Army 15,000 WWI Vet. Staging a protest (1932) demanding immediate payment of military bonuses o Bank Holiday Business day where the banks were closed o Brain Trust Group of leading intellectuals charged with formulating policy with Roosevelt o Federal Emergency Relief Administration Fed. Department created to employ the unemployed o Civilian Conservation Corps New deal program that enlisted unemployed young men (18-25) in building and repairing highways, forest service sites, flood control projects, and National Park buildings. o Nation Industrial Recovery Act New deal Act that instituted programs to regulate industry, establish labor rights, and improve working conditions Section 7a Legalized and granted rights to labor unions leading to the dramatic expansion of labor unions across the nation o National Recovery Administration Ch. 22 and 23 1 | P a g e Enforced fair trade rules set by industry associations during the 1920’s encouraging companies and workers to meet and agree on prices and wages and established a public relations campaign to mobilize support of the new deal o Agricultural Adjustment Act New deal act that established an agency that paid farmers not to grow crops in order to curb supply (one of the most influential federal agencies in the South West) o Tennessee Valley Authority Department created to build a series of dams on the Tennessee River in order to improve river navigation and create electricity for the rural residents of the area (1933) o Glass-Steagall Banking Act Law regulating the banking industry and creating the FDIC o Works Progress Administration New deal agency whose workers built roads, dams, schools, subways, housing projects, and other federal projects, as well as sponsoring cultural programs for unemployed artists and writers o Wagner Act Legislation that strengthened the legal position of trade unions (1935 also known as the National Labor Relations Act) o Social Security Act Provide a “safety net” for citizens who could not financially support themselves (1935) o Keynesianism The government should engage in deficit spending in order to stimulate a depressed economy o Congress of Industrial Organizations Broadly based trade union that recruited unskilled men and women on a large scale, mostly in mining and clothing industries o Sit-Down Strike Action in which workers stop working and lock themselves in the factory so that strikebreakers cannot take their places o Black Cabinet An informal group of black officials appointed to government posts who discussed African American issues with Roosevelt Chapter 23 o Munich Agreement A treaty that allowed Hitler to annex strategic areas of Czechoslovakia (1938 treaty) o Nonaggression pact An agreement between Stalin and Hitler to divide Poland between the two nations so they would not attack each other o “good neighbor” policy American strategy of renouncing military intervention in Latin American afairs Ch. 22 and 23 2 | P a g e o Blitzkriegs “lightning wars” fast and brutal attacks staged by Germany on its neighbors (1940) o Vichy Headquarters of the German French regime installed in 1940 o Holocaust Systematic killing of Jews, gypsies, and other societal scapegoats o Battle of Britain A fierce battle fought in summer and autumn (1940), Hitler attempted to break Britain’s air power through heavy bombardment of British cities o “America First Committee” Organization created to oppose the U. S being involved in WWII, one that argued that Nazis wer unstoppable and that the united states should negotiate with them o Four Freedoms Basic Human rights that were used to make America’s involvement in WWII ideologically sound ( Speech, Worship, From want, and from fear) o Lend-Lease Act Legislation that allowed the president to lend weapons and supplies to nations fighting the Germans or the Japanese o Atlantic Charter War was waged in the name of national self-determination not conquest o Grand Alliance Group of countries against Hitler (US, Britain, and the SU) o Four policemen The four allies: US, SU, Britian, and China. Roosevelt suggested that after the war these countries exert their military power to ensure international peace. o Midway Turning point of the Pacific battle when in 1942 the Allies finally stopped the expansion of Japan o Guadalcanal One of the Solomon Islands in the Pacific, the location of 1943 battle that gave the US and its allies a foothold in the Pacific o Fair Employment Practices Committee Agency that required companies with Fed contracts to make jobs available without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin o Double V Campaign by African Americans during WWII demanding democracy at home and abroad o Bracero program Ch. 22 and 23 3 | P a g e US government brought several hundred thousands of Mexican migrants to work on California farms o GI Bill Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 which promised unemployment benefits, educational opportunities, low interest housing loads, and medical care to soldiers o Battle of the Bulge Largest battle of the western front ended when the Germans failed to capture the allied stronghold of Bastogne Belgium and allowed Soviet forces to advance on Germany from the east o Yalta agreement Statement issued by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin that promised independent regimes in Poland and eastern Europe yet conceded that pro-soviet parties would have a large role in creating and sustaining these regimes o Manhattan Project American project during WWII designed to harness the power of the atom and create an atom bomb Ch. 22 and 23 4 | P a g e Cold War: The postwar ideological, economic, and military contest between the United States and the Soviet Union. United Nations (UN): International organization that fosters discussions among the world’s nations and monitors the well-being of almost all individuals in the world. Containment: U.S. Strategy for dealing with the Soviet Union with the intent of containing communism and not letting it advance any further than it already had. Domino Theory: Metaphor referring to unstable nations as dominoes, with the United States being obligated to prevent the dominoes from “falling” which would begin a process of communist world domination Truman Doctrine: U.S strategy of offering aid to nations that might be susceptible to communist infiltration Marshall Plan: Truman Doctrine as it was administered in Europe by General George Marshall; the plan sent $13 billion to governments that promised to become or remain democracies North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A pact that cemented an alliance of Western nations NSC-68: Classified paper written by American diplomats that portrayed an uncontrollably aggressive Soviet Union and recommended stopping the threat through a massive military buildup, the creation of hydrogen bombs, and the rooting out of all communists on American soil Fair deal: Truman’s twenty-one point postwar plan that provided increases in the minimum wage, federal assistance in building homes, federal support for education and health care, and jobs in public works; representing a renewal of the fair employment practices commission Taft-Hartley act: Labor-Management act of 1947 that banned the closed shop, outlawed collective bargaining within industries, and authorized the president to delay strikes by declaring a cooling-off period National Interstate and Defense Highways Act: The largest public works project in American history when it was passed authorized $25 billion to build 41,000 miles of roads, greatly assisting the burgeoning car culture of the 1950s Kitchen Debate: Discussion between Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and Vice President Richard Nixon in the 1959 debating the relative merits of capitalism and communism Hollywood Ten: A group of screenwriters and directors accused of being members of the communist party Blacklist: Collection of names of hundreds of people deemed “Subversive” whom Hollywood executives agreed not to hire. Massive resistance: A campaign and policy begun by politicians in Virginia to craft laws and do whatever possible to resist racial integration; spread throughout the south White Citizens Councils: Committees organized in the 1950s and 1960s to defend segregation in the south Bus boycott: A campaign to boycott an areas bus until change is instituted; used frequently during the civil rights movement Non Violence: Strategy for social changes that rejects the use of violence.