A 13-kN force is applied as shown to the 60-mm-diameter cast-ironpost ABD. At point H, determine (a) the principal stresses andprincipal planes, (b) the maximum shearing stress.
Thermodynamics I Lecture notes System: the object/ volume Closed system- A fixed quantity of matter. Control Volume- A fixed volume of space. Isolated System- Nothing crosses boundary. Property- A macroscopic quantity that can be assigned a value at any point in time without any knowledge of the history of the system. State- Condition of a system as described by the value of its properties. Thermodynamics process- A change in state. Steady State- The state of a system is unchanging in time.