A stream containing HzS and inert gases and a second stream of pure S02 are fed to a sulfur recovery reactor, where the reaction 2HzS + S02 3S + 2HzO takes place. The feed rates are adjusted so that the ratio of HzS to SOz in the combined feed is always stoichiometric. In the normal operation of the reactor the flow rate and composition of the H2S feed stream both fluctuate. In the past, each time either variable changed the required SOz feed rate had to be reset by adjusting a valve in the feed line. A control system has been installed to automate this process. The H2S feed stream passes through an electronic flowmeter that transmits a signal Rf directly proportional to the molar flow rate of the stream, nf. When nf = 100 kmol/h, the transmitted signal Rf = 15 mY. The mole fraction of HzS in this stream is measured with a thermal conductivity detector, which transmits a signal Ra Analyzer calibration data are as follows: Ra(mV) 0 25.4 42.8 58.0 71.9 85.1 I x(mol HzS/mol) 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 The controller takes as input the transmitted values of Rf and Ra and calculates and transmits a voltage signal Re to a flow control valve in the SOz line, which opens and closes to an extent dependent on the value of Re. A plot of the S02 flow rate, ne , versus Re on rectangular coordinates is a straight line through the points (Re = 10.0 mY, ne = 25.0 kmol/h) and (Re = 25.0 mY, ne = 60.0 kmol/h). Com"", ISO, O Re ,'" -----------1 Control valve Rt ,' , ", : Ra I I H,S, ;oort, ~----~I'_ ----~:-:-~t-~~-- Flowmeter Analyzer BLENDER (a) Why would it be important to feed the reactants in stoichiometric proportion? (Hint: S02 and especially H2S are serious pollutants.) What are several likely reasons for wanting to automate the S02 feed rate adjustment? (b) If the first stream contains 85.0 mole% HzS and enters the unit at a rate of nf = 3.00 X lOZ kmol/h, what must the value of nc(kmol S02/h) be? (c) Fit a function to the HzS analyzer calibration data to derive an expression for x as a function of Ra Check the fit by plotting both the function and the calibration data on the same graph. (d) Derive a formula for Rc from specified values of Rf and Ra, using the result of part (c) in the derivation. (This formula would be built into the controller.) Test the formula using the flow rate and composition data of part (a). (e) The system has been installed and made operational, and at some point the concentration of H2S in the feed stream suddenly changes. A sample of the blended gas is collected and analyzed a short time later and the mole ratio of H2S to S02 is not the required 2:1. List as many possible reasons as you can think of for this apparent failure of the control system.
3/2/16 ● One of two great Indian epics, comparable to Illiad (Mahabharata the other, comparable to Odyssey) ● Approximate dates: 1000600 BCE ● Began as oral stories; “authentic” version written in Sanskrit in early centuries CE ● Multiple versions exist; ex: versions in different regional languages, produced by different religious/social communities ● Continued appeal in contemporary India and Southeast Asia; ex: India TV series; Javanese shadow puppet plays 3/21/16 Rammohan Roy (17721833): ● Example of an early modern Indian elite and reformer ○ Worked toward abolition of sati (1829) ○ Formed Brahmo Samaj ■ “Society of god”; devoted for the monotheistic interpretation of Hinduism ● Arya Samaj: est. by Dayananda Saraswati in 1875 ● Ramakrishna Mission: est. by Vivekananda (18631902) ● Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi (18691948): invents satyagraha; advocates abolishment of untouchability, swaraj (“selfrule), swadeshi (“homemade”), and sarvodaya (“welfare for all”) Islam’s response to colonialism in Asia ● Reformist movements, ranging from “traditionalist” (ex: Deoband) and European modeled (ex: Aligrah) both examples from India Buddhism: Internal Changes ● Ashoka’s influence continued to inform Buddhist identity and relationship with the state. (ex: pg 211), a single monk/council, appointed by the state, exerts leadership over the sangha ● Monks used to gather good through “morning begging rounds” (still done in Myanmar); but by the modern period lay community provides food for sangha; monks cook, promotion of vegetarianism, alcohol permitted. ● Meditation: until modern era practices among elite monks and nuns; “mindfulness meditation” (vipassana) key practice focused on suffering, impermanence, and nonself; mediation remains important, but no key to Buddhism practices, why What becomes focus ● Merit (punya): progression of stages to earn ○ Dana: selfless giving to diminish desire ○ Shila: morality ● Merit (punya) becomes the goal of Buddhist laypersons; dana helps a person accumulate it (punya) ● Meritmaking includes organizing compassionate actions, fasting, meditation ● Rituals (ex: recitation of mantras) and festivals (uposatha, death) developed to solidify interdependence of monks/nuns and laity ● Stupas/caityas become focal points of 3/23/16 Impacts of Western colonialism on Buddhism, 15001960 ● Buddhism suffers initial decline under most colonial powers, who did not fill role of protector (Ashoka): seized ports, destroyed monasteries, forced conversion, end state support for sangha (Buddhism also suffers under Japanese imperialism) ● Prompts institutional and doctrinal changes; inspired by new ideas/modes of thought from the West; ex: “Buddhist work ethic” developed by Taixu (18891947) ● Buddhism begins to revive in the 20th century due in part ot Western sympathizers and scholarship (Theosophical Society) ● Buddhism inspires new lay organizations in Japan ○ Soka Gakkai (established 1930): works for world peace and human welfare; currently 12 million members in Japan and 1.4 million worldwide Impacts of the West on East Asian Traditions: Confucianism diminished ● National reforms looked to Western learning to produce wealth and power ● Social hierarchy and low ranking of merchants (“parasites”) discouraged modern trade ● Social norms criticized: three bonds (ruler/minister, father/son, husband/wife) and three principles (hierarchy, age, gender) viewed as obstacles of modernization; ex: family first sometimes resulted in inability to trust others as needed to develop economy ● Traditional education system blamed for lack of technical development: “reproduction instead of innovation” Impacts of the West on East Asian Traditions: NeoShintoism ● Adopted as state religion (also called State Shinto) of Japan in 1882 (during Meiji era 18681912); emperor made head of state, viewed as deity ○ Shinto is indigenous to Japan ● Shrines, temples integrated into stategoverned system (ex: Yasukuni Shrine); Japanese directed to worship daily facing Tokyo; 1889 Constitutions limited criticism of Shinto doctrines and practices (Buddhism challenged; doesn’t represent the true spirit of Japan) ● Citizens encouraged to work hard to honor the emperor and promote national good (influence of Confucianism) Emergence of New Religions: Impact of Christianity ● Catholic mission enter East Asia in 1500’s; little impact; Christianity prohibited in Japan during Tokugawa era (16001868) ● Protestant mission enter significantly after 1800; influential in education, medical, and technical fields Emergence of New Religions ● Began to emerge in 19th century; combined elements of Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, indigenous traditions, Christianity, and ideas of West; promoted egalitarianism: ○ Examples: Taiping Rebellion (185064): led by Hong Xiuquan (181464) who claimed to be Jesus’ younger brother and sought to destroy other religions; promoted strict moral code; attempted to overthrow Qing dynasty; occupied Nanjing, but movement ultimately failed. ● Ch’ondogyo: established in Korea in 1860; belief in “Heavenly Way”, with whom each person has an intimate connection; over three million members at present ● Tenrikyo: established in Japan by Nakayam Miki (17981887); accepts reincarnation until the heart is purified of the “8 dusts” (see page 304); salvation achieved through dance ritual 3/28/16 Asian Religions and Cultures in Postmodern Age: Focus on Indigenous Traditions ● What generally characterizes religion and culture in the postmodern era ○ Openness , tolerance, acceptance ○ More heretics ○ Collapse sacred stories, beliefs ○ Resurgence of within political life ○ Diaspora; religion goes beyond ○ Scientific and religious knowledge relative, competes on equal footing What has happened to indigenous tradition in the postmodern era ● Disastrous impact of colonialism: elimination, suppression, and disappearance ○ Indigenous traditions merge with other traditions ● Objects of discrimination (ex: Ainu) ● Survival: Remote living or assimilation (syncretism) ● Survival: Coexistence with other traditions; ex: shamans in East Asia: dangki in Taiwan and mudung in Korea (mostly women); role increased with modernization ● Survival: Emergence of neoshamanism, “white shamans” 3/30/16